A review of the literature and examination of over 3,200 specimens of shallow water (<200 m) tropical western Atlantic (TWA) Drilliidae Olson, 1964 in museum and private collections has resulted in the recognition of numerous previously undescribed species, 100 of which are proposed here for the first time. A total of 65 names were found in the literature. Of these, 48 are considered valid, 16 synonyms, and one nomen dubium. In addition, characteristics that distinguish each genus currently in use for TWA shallow water species have indicated the need for reassignment (new combinations within Drilliidae) of 15 species. Some nomenclatural actions have come about from the literature review and include one taxon placed in junior synonymy (under an older name recently re-discovered) and one new name for a junior homonym. Two neotypes, five lectotype designations, and one new name are also proposed. Altogether, nomenclatural actions on 17% of valid previously described taxa are proposed. The 100 proposed names are placed in 12 available and one new genus: Agladrillia Woodring, 1928 (2), Bellaspira Conrad, 1868 (7), Calliclava McLean, 1971 (3), Cerodrillia Bartsch & Rehder, 1939 (11), Clathrodrillia Dall, 1918 (6), Decoradrillia, new genus (4), Douglassia Bartsch, 1934 (4), Fenimorea Bartsch, 1934 (15), Leptadrillia Woodring, 1928 (12), Lissodrillia Bartsch & Rehder, 1939 (8), Neodrillia Bartsch, 1943 (2), Splendrillia Hedley, 1922 (13), and Syntomodrillia Woodring, 1928 (13). These are the first reports of Calliclavain the western Atlantic, previously known only from the eastern Pacific. The new genus, Decoradrillia, is proposed to hold four new species and one existing that share a unique shell microsculpture and other morphological traits. One genus, Drillia Gray, 1838, is not currently believed to have TWA representatives. Three genera comprised exclusively of bathyal species are not treated in this work: Clavus Monfort, 1810 (=Eldridgea Bartsch, 1934), Globidrillia Woodring, 1928, and Spirotropis Sars, 1878. The significant increase in species within all of the genera has the effect of strengthening the groups’ diagnostic characters by their presence across a greater number of species. Each of the 148 valid species treated herein are described (or redescribed) and photographs of types presented, as are photographs of morphological variants and representatives from separate geographic areas, if available, to illustrate species’ variability
Tropical Western Atlantic
Western Atlantic species of the New World genus Pustulatirus Vermeij and Snyder, 2006 are revised. Types of previously named taxa are figured. Species recognized as valid include P. attenuata (Reeve, 1847), range uncertain; P. eppi (Melvill, 1891), Curagao; P. ogum (Petuch, 1979), northeastern Brazil; and P. virginensis (Abbott, 1958), Bahama Islands and eastern Caribbean Sea to Aruba. Latirus karinae Nowell-Usticke, 1969 is confirmed as ajunior subjective synonym of P. virginensis. Syrinx annulata Röding, 1798, treated as a Caribbean Pustulatirus by Vermeij and Snyder (2006), and Latirus annulatus Melvill, 1891 are regarded as species inquirenda. Three new species are described: P biocellatus, northeastern Brazil; P. utilaensis, Bay Islands, Honduras and northwestern Panamá; and P. watermanorum, Honduras continental shelf and offshore Colombian banks. Most western Atlantic Pustulatirus shells exhibit little intraspecific variability in morphology or color and occur within rather precise, well-defined ranges; an exception is P. virginensis, whose shells exhibit much variability in size, morphology and color.
Abstract During expeditions to Curaçao in August and October of 2013, a large number of fish infected with dermal parasites was observed. Infected individuals pre- sented black spots and white blemishes on their skin and fins that were easily observed by divers, and which have been associated with infections by trematodes, turbel- larians, and protozoans (Cryptocaryon). In order to com- pare rates of infection across localities in the Caribbean, we conducted visual censuses of reef fish communities along 40 m2 belt transects in Belize (n = 35), Curaçao (n = 82), and Mexico (n = 80) over a 4-week period. Three affected individuals were recorded in Belize, 75 in Curaçao, and none in Mexico. Approximately 68 % of the infected individuals in Curaçao were surgeonfishes (Acanthuridae). There was no correlation between inci- dence of infection and species abundance (r2 = 0.03), or with functional traits (diet, mobility, schooling behavior, or position in the water column). The causes of the strik- ingly high incidence of dermal parasites in Curaçao and its consequences remain unknown. However, considering that parasites with complex life cycles have several hosts throughout their lives, and that past disease outbreaks have had severe consequences on communities of the Caribbe- an, we caution that coral reef ecosystems of Curaçao should be closely monitored.