sustainability

UAUCU Student Research Exchange Collected Papers 2016 (Vol. 2)

Introduction to the second edition of the UAUCU Student Research Exchange Collected Papers

In this publication you will find papers and reflections that were written by thirteen participants in the UAUCU student research exchange project 2016, a project that offers students from University College Utrecht (UCU), University Utrecht (UU) and the University of Aruba (UA) the opportunity to conduct research in a multidisciplinary international student team. All students have submitted papers that reflect the diversity of approaches that the students have followed. The 2015 edition of this program has proven to be successful: three papers have led to international publications and two papers have resulted in thesis that received awards. We wish the same for the participants in the 2016 edition.

On the following pages you will find papers on language and culture, health care development, international relations and diplomacy, labor and productivity, organizational transitions and sustainability. While reading you will notice that the research was in different stages of completion at the time of publication of this book: for some of the participants, the field research is completed but data still need to be interpreted, for some the field research still has to start, and for some, the research and analysis have been completed. Some students are still struggling with the interpretation and presentation of their findings. Based upon this fieldwork the student will write their bachelor’s or master’s thesis. The research interests of the students are diverse but show a common interest in sustainable development and it is clear from the final products that the collaboration in the multidisciplinary team has influenced their approach to their research topics.

Every student has written a reflection on his or her experiences during the project that you will find in this book. It is an interesting experience to read the reflections of the participants and to see how strong the collaboration and support has been among the students. These reflections tell you more about the core of this project: it is not only about doing research and about making student research meaningful; it is also about the realization that we can achieve more if we approach problems from several perspectives at the same time, and work together in teams that are multidisciplinary and as such complementary.

The papers in this volume are the product of peer to peer learning: the students in the research team have provided each other with feedback on content, method, style, language and structure. The papers have been published as they were submitted by the students; including the odd spelling mistake, grammatical error, raw opinion or hasty generalization.

Looking back at this second year of the project, one realizes how many people have been involved. It is impossible to name everybody; many people are crucial to the success of a project like this. For everybody who has been part of this project as (guest) lecturer, supervisor, manager, initiator, facilitator, student, interviewee, respondent, guide, coach or mentor: thank you very much for your support!

Eric Mijts & Jocelyn Ballantyne, Project coordinators UAUCU

 

 

Language and Culture

Anne Maamke Boonstra - UCU

The Performance of Gender & Sexuality During Carnival on Aruba

Maja Vasić - UU

The preferred language of instruction in the higher education in Aruba: attitudinal, situational and motivational aspects

Fardau Bamberger - UU

The role of English in Aruba’s linguistic landscape

 

Health and Care Development

Felishah Ponson - UA

The emotional impact on people with disabilities striving to be independent in Aruba

Dahariana Evertsz - UA

A situational Analysis of the relevant welfare services and social security programs for the older population of Aruba: implications for policy

Nurianne Dhalía Arias - UA

Diabetes Management in a Changing Society

 

International Relations and Diplomacy

Ghislaine Nicolaas - UA

Economic Diplomacy in Sub-National Island Jurisdiction

 

Labor and Productivity

Giancarla Lobbrecht - UA

Absenteeism in the Public Sector

Gianira Maduro - UA

Satisfaction of the ‘Bezoldigingsregeling Ambtenaren’

 

Organizational Transitions and Sustainability

Mirjam Snitjer - UU

“The Sexiness of Sustainability” Perspectives Towards Sustainability of Aruban Citizens

Anniek van Wezel - UU

The utility and waste management sector in the 2020 vision of Aruba

Lizanne Takke - UU

Aruba’s sustainable transition: leadership used in an organizational transition towards sustainability from a management perspective

Jochem Pennekamp - UA

Does the Model Fit the Format? A Re-contextualization of the Triple Helix Model(s) in a Small Island Setting

Date
2016
Data type
Research report
Theme
Governance
Education and outreach
Legislation
Research and monitoring
Geographic location
Aruba

UAUCU Student Research Exchange Collected Papers 2017 (Vol. 3)

Introduction to the third edition of the UAUCU Student Research Exchange Collected Papers

This volume presents academic papers and personal reflections written by the twelve participants of the UAUCU student research exchange project 2017. The texts in this volume reflect a wide diversity of academic disciplines and approaches, as well as the wide diversity in cultural background of this year’s participant cohort. The program, which offers students from the University of Aruba (UA), University College Utrecht (UCU) and University Utrecht (UU) the opportunity to conduct research in a multidisciplinary international student team, has already proven to be a successful formula: work presented in the 2015 and 2016 volumes led to international publications, and several program alumni received thesis awards. We anticipate similar achievements for contributors to the 2017 edition.

The academic works included here treat culture, language, psychology, policy, law, environmental sciences and sustainability. The scope of the research ranges from pilot projects, to theoretical explorations verified with respondent data, to in depth sociocultural and psychological studies that explore fundamental issues confronting society. The diverse papers show a common interest in sustainable societies, reflecting a strong sense of community awareness, and providing research findings that are meaningful for Aruban society. The papers further demonstrate how the student researchers’ collaboration in a multidisciplinary team has influenced their approach to their topics. The papers here are products of peer-to-peer learning: the program participants provided each other with feedback on content, method, style, language and structure. In general, the papers appear here as they were submitted by the student-researchers -- including the odd spelling mistake, grammatical error, raw opinion or hasty generalization. Some of the student-researchers are still working on the interpretation and presentation of their findings, and will later finalize project papers, or bachelor or master theses, based on results of fieldwork presented.

Our 2017 multidisciplinary team is also remarkably multicultural: it includes students with personal connections not only to Aruba, but to Belgium, Colombia, Curaçao, Holland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Myanmar, Russia, Rwanda, South Korea, Thailand, the United States and Venezuela. The cultural and ethnic diversity of the group has contributed to an extraordinarily rich social environment for this year’s participants. All of them have written individual pieces reflecting on their personal experiences. These reflective texts show how strong the collaboration and mutual support within this diverse group has been. The texts reveal much about the core of this project: it is not only about doing meaningful research as a student; it is also about the realization that we can achieve more in the world when we approach problems from several perspectives at the same time, and when we work together by building on each other’s complementary strengths. Here, too, the whole is greater than the sum of its parts.

This third year of the project has involved many people crucial to its success – it is impossible to name them all. But to all who have been part of this project as (guest) lecturer, supervisor, manager, initiator, facilitator, student, interviewee, respondent, guide, coach or mentor: thank you very much for your contribution to this greater whole.

 

Eric Mijts & Jocelyn Ballantyne Project coordinators UAUCU

 

Culture, language, media and psychology

Louisa Maxwell

Calypso and cultural commodification in Aruba

Yun Lee

A correlation between cultural identity and juvenile delinquency in Aruba

Tanya Kirchner 

Understanding the roots of parasuicide among the adolescence in Aruba: associated risks and protective factors

Melany Llocclla

Volunteerism: an approach to encouraging more volunteering in Aruba

Zita Ngizwenayo

Adolescent perceptions on language and professional communication

Rachel Tromp

Social media use on Aruba in the business perspective

Policy, law, environmental sciences and sustainability

Rotem Zilber

Assessment of endemic fauna in key biodiversity areas

Larisa Leeuwe

Environmental law: national and international perspectives

Ben Bultrini

Community participation in solid waste management in Aruba

William Cruice

Entrepreneurial governance and sustainable development on Aruba: a cultural political economy approach

Rodolfo Rodriguez

The synergy between academia and industry: success factors towards a healthy partnership

Nayla Yarzagaray

The importance of tax compliance among SME’s in Aruba for business continuity

Date
2017
Data type
Research report
Theme
Governance
Education and outreach
Legislation
Research and monitoring
Geographic location
Aruba

An integrated assessment of environmental, economic, social and technological parameters of source separated and conventional sanitation concepts: A contribution to sustainability analysis

Resource recovery and reuse from domestic wastewater has become an important subject for the current development of sanitation technologies and infrastructures. Different technologies are available and combined into sanitation concepts, with different performances. This study provides a methodological approach to evaluate the sustainability of these sanitation concepts with focus on resource recovery and reuse. St. Eustatius, a small tropical island in the Caribbean, was used as a case study for the evaluation. Three source separation-communityon-site and two combined sewerage island-scale concepts were selected and compared in terms of environmental (net energy use, nutrient recovery/reuse, BOD/COD, pathogens, and GHG emission, land use), economic (CAPEX and OPEX), social cultural (acceptance, required competences and education), and technological (flexibility/adaptability, reliability/continuity of service) indicators. The best performing concept, is the application of Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Bed (UASB) and Trickling Filter (TF) at island level for combined domestic wastewater treatment with subsequent reuse in agriculture. Its overall average normalised score across the four categories (i.e., average of average per category) is about 15% (0.85) higher than the values of the remaining systems and with a score of 0.73 (conventional activated sludge – centralised level), 0.77 (UASB-septic tank (ST)), 0.76 (UASB-TF - community level), and 0.75 (ST - household level). The higher score of the UASB-TF at community
level is mainly due to much better performance in the environmental and economic categories. In conclusion, the case study provides a methodological approach that can support urban planning and decision-making in selecting more sustainable sanitation concepts, allowing resource recovery and reuse in small island context or in other contexts. 

Date
2021
Data type
Scientific article
Theme
Education and outreach
Research and monitoring
Geographic location
St. Eustatius

Dutch Caribbean Research Platform Towards the sustainable strengthening of the knowledge system in the Caribbean part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands

The Caribbean Research Programme is administered by the Dutch Research Council (NWO) and has received funding from the Netherlands Ministry of Education, Culture and Science (OCW) since 2013. As part of this programme, the Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NWO-NIOZ) established the Caribbean Netherlands Science Insti tute (CNSI) on Sint Eustatius, which it continues to administer. As the end of the current funding period (December 2022) approaches, NWO has commissioned this exploration of options for the future of the CNSI. This document is not an evaluation of the current CNSI but a look ahead. Its focus is the contribution that the CNSI can make to the sustainable strengthening of the knowledge system of the Caribbean islands. What is the organization’s added value? The findings, conclusions and recommendations set out below are based on interviews conducted with various stakeholders between March 2020 and March 2021.

Many interviewees express concern about the significant fragmentation of the current knowledge system which, they contend, shows little cohesion or coordination. Several suggest that maintaining a presence at a single location does nothing to promote connections between the six islands. This report therefore calls for a new, decentralized structure in which there is a physical presence on each of the islands. We propose a structure which offers effective support to researchers, knowledge institutes and consortia. This structure will strengthen cohesion, collaboration and exchange throughout the Kingdom of the Netherlands. It will build bridges between all the various scientific disciplines and their specific research approaches, between research and education, between research and practice. It will bring science closer to society. Such a structure is essential if the Caribbean knowledge system is to be strengthened in a sustainable way, fully embedded within the broader Dutch and international knowledge system, and thus made future proof. Research funding is not enough; ongoing investment in the knowledge system itself is needed if these aims are to be achieved.

This report advises the establishment of a Dutch Caribbean Research Platform (DUCARP): a network organization with a coordinating centre on Sint Maarten and an ‘anchor point’ on each of the five other islands. DUCARP will undertake activities which are needed to strengthen both the quality and quantity of scientific research on and about the Caribbean islands. This new organization can only succeed if the people and institutions of those islands can claim ownership. Following a successful start-up phase, further development to become an international centre of expertise for issues facing all Small Island Developing States (SIDS) may be considered.

The Caribbean Research Programme is administered by the Dutch Research Council (NWO) and has received funding from the Netherlands Ministry of Education, Culture and Science (OCW) since 2013. As part of this programme, the Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NWO-NIOZ) established the Caribbean Netherlands Science Insti tute (CNSI) on Sint Eustatius, which it continues to administer. As the end of the current funding period (December 2022) approaches, NWO has commissioned this exploration of options for the future of the CNSI. This document is not an evaluation of the current CNSI but a look ahead. Its focus is the contribution that the CNSI can make to the sustainable strengthening of the knowledge system of the Caribbean islands. What is the organization’s added value? The findings, conclusions and recommendations set out below are based on interviews conducted with various stakeholders between March 2020 and March 2021. Many interviewees express concern about the significant fragmentation of the current knowledge system which, they contend, shows little cohesion or coordination. Several suggest that maintaining a presence at a single location does nothing to promote connections between the six islands. This report therefore calls for a new, decentralized structure in which there is a physical presence on each of the islands. We propose a structure which offers effective support to researchers, knowledge institutes and consortia. This structure will strengthen cohesion, collaboration and exchange throughout the Kingdom of the Netherlands. It will build bridges between all the various scientific disciplines and their specific research approaches, between research and education, between research and practice. It will bring science closer to society. Such a structure is essential if the Caribbean knowledge system is to be strengthened in a sustainable way, fully embedded within the broader Dutch and international knowledge system, and thus made futureproof. Research funding is not enough; ongoing investment in the knowledge system itself is needed if these aims are to be achieved. This report advises the establishment of a Dutch Caribbean Research Platform (DUCARP): a network organization with a coordinating centre on Sint Maarten and an ‘anchor point’ on each of the five other islands. DUCARP will undertake activities which are needed to strengthen both the quality and quantity of scientific research on and about the Caribbean islands. This new organization can only succeed if the people and institutions of those islands can claim ownership. Following a successful start-up phase, further development to become an international centre of expertise for issues facing all Small Island Developing States (SIDS) may be considered.

Date
2021
Data type
Research report

The blue destination strategy in a small island tourism oriented society

Abstract:

Tourism could be discussed as being a damaging phenomenon if not managed correctly as well as being destructive towards its own industry by its contribution towards climate change (UNWTO 2008; Glegg et al 2021; Grilli 2021). However, tourism is often considered to be highly important for the destination's economic and social development (Glegg et al 2021). Besides this, natural resources often tend to play an important role in the attractiveness of a destination (Fennell 2015; Uyarra et al 2009). A strategic tourism strategy is therefore needed in order to protect the natural resources of the destination, and in order to become economically, socially, and environmentally sustainable. The blue destination strategy could be defined as the sustainable use of ocean resources for growth, well-being, and jobs while protecting the oceans’ ecosystems’ health (Tourism Corporation Bonaire 2017). Bonaire is a small island in the Caribbean that, since 2017, has been implementing a blue destination approach as their destination development strategy. By examining the case of Bonaire, the study aims to develop a better understanding of the contribution of a development strategy towards a sustainable tourism industry within a tourism-oriented society, and aims to highlight the stakeholder’s perspective. This is trying to be obtained by answering the three research questions of what the tourism industry looks like on Bonaire, what is trying to be achieved with the blue destination company certification and what the blue destination strategy is as well as what effect it has had on Bonaire so far. In order to provide an answer, the study uses a triangularization method. Six interviews with stakeholders, document analysis, and statistical analysis were carried out. Results highlighted that tourism on Bonaire is an important driver for economic and social growth. The tourism industry on Bonaire is seen as highly dependent on the natural resources of the island, mainly its ocean. The blue company certification has been highlighted as a tool to ensure that sustainable criteria are met as well as an important tool for marketing and inspiring others to become more sustainable. Blue destination has then been highlighted as a way to create and ensure a tourism industry that generates economic welfare and stimulates sustainability for the whole island while highlighting the connection between human activity and the marine ecosystem that takes place in the ocean economy. Measurable effects have so far been minimal or not noticeable but stakeholders highlighted that it has helped by synergizing the island and providing better cooperation between stakeholders, leading to them having the same vision.

Date
2021
Data type
Research report
Theme
Research and monitoring
Document
Geographic location
Bonaire

Saba Bank video documentary

Video documentary describing the importance of the Saba Bank as a natural resource for the island of Saba, including underwater footage and interviews with fishermen and managers.

Date
2017
Data type
Media
Theme
Education and outreach
Geographic location
Saba bank
Author
Image

Misspent youth: Does catching immature fish affect fisheries sustainability?

The “spawn-at-least-once” principle suggests that sustainability is secured if fish become vulnerable to commercial gears only after they have spawned. However, some studies suggest that protecting immature fish is not essential to sustainability because extrinsic factors determine both recruitment and stock status. A meta-analysis was conducted to quantify the independent effects of exploitation pattern and exploitation rate on current stock status. The analysis used empirical data for 38 fish stocks of 13 species in the NE Atlantic. Two metrics of exploitation pattern were used and their sensitivity was compared. As expected, exploitation rate had a sig- nificant negative effect on current stock status. Exploitation patterns associated with high proportional fishing mortality of immature fish also had a significant negative effect on current stock status, providing empirical support for the “spawn-at-least-once” principle. When the fishing mortality of immature fish exceeds half that of mature fish, stock status falls below precautionary limits. Our results suggest that a sensitive metric of exploitation pattern could provide useful information about an aspect of exploitation that is cur- rently overlooked by fisheries management regimes that focus primarily on exploitation rate. 

Date
2011
Data type
Scientific article
Theme
Research and monitoring

Shell Lip Thickness Is the Most Reliable Proxy to Sexual Maturity in Queen Conch (Lobatus gigas) of Port Honduras Marine Reserve, Belize

Queen conch (Lobatus gigas) is an important food source and export product for Belize, where extraction is regulated by shell length (SL) and market clean weight (MCW) limits. However, lip thickness (LT) limits are used to manage juvenile mortality and reduce risk of growth overfishing in other countries. Empirical studies suggest relationships between LT and sexual maturity vary spatially and need to be determined locally. This study was conducted to determine the most reliable, easily measurable proxy indicator(s) of maturity and associated target size limits in L. gigas that can effectively restrict harvest of juveniles. Morphological measures (SL, LT, lip width, unprocessed meat weight, MCW, operculum dimensions), gonadosomatic index (GSI) and histological evaluations were recorded from L. gigas collected in PHMR before, during, and after the L. gigas closed season. Upon determining Period 2 (during closed season) as the peak reproductive period, relationships between these variables in Period 2 were examined. No relationship was found in males between SL and maturity, and was weak in females, whereas there were significant curvilinear relationships between LT and GSI for both sexes, suggesting urgent need to base size limits on LT not SL. LT at which 50% of the population was mature (LT50) was 15.51 mm for females and 12.33 mm for males, therefore a 16 mm LT limit is recommended. MCW of female L. gigas was also significantly related to GSI, indicating MCW may be an appropriate management tool in conjunction with LT as it can be measured at landing sites whereas shells are usually discarded at sea. However, MCW at which 50% of females were mature (MCW50) was 199 g and many individuals exceeding LT50 had MCW <199 g, suggesting the current 85 g MCW limit is too low to protect juveniles yet 199 g MCW limit would be too high to substitute the recommended LT limit at landing sites. To minimize short-term impacts yet maximize long-term benefits to fishers’ livelihoods, multi-stage adaptive management is recommended that integrates initial catch reductions, followed by introduction of size limits of 16 mm LT, and 150 g MCW. Adjustable LT and MCW limits determined by fishery simulation could later be introduced. 

Date
2017
Data type
Scientific article
Theme
Research and monitoring