nature inclusive

The state of cactus fences and kunukus for nature inclusivity on the island of Bonaire

Agriculture on Bonaire does not support the demand for food on the island, and therefore the people are dependent on expensive food importation. Recently, any Bonairean people abandon their kunukus to take jobs in the urban area in tourism or off-island in the oil industry. Traditionally, a kunuku was used as an agricultural plot for food production for the household. A kunuku would usually have a cactus fence used to contain grazing goats or chickens, or to produce household amounts of sorghum maize, and keep animals out. In order to help restore nature to Bonaire and include it in the daily lives of people, restoration and use of cactus fences on kunukus are being considered as nature inclusive measure. In order to get a better understanding of the current use of kunukus and presence of cactus fences on the island, satellite information and field observations were collected about the state of kunukus and the use of cactus fences. Results show that kunukus are rapidly being abandoned. The predictive accuracy from satellite imagery of active kunukus was high (92.5%). Furthermore, only 4% of the active kunukus have a well-maintained cactus fence. Implications of these findings are discussed with focus on nature inclusiveness and the use of the kunuku as a means to restore a cultural pride, self-sufficiency, local economic diversification and a healthier food culture on Bonaire.

Date
2022
Data type
Research report
Theme
Research and monitoring
Report number
3150
Geographic location
Bonaire
Image

Bonaire 2050, a nature inclusive vision

2nd edition (2022) including maps of futures with accompnaying trend projections and indicators.
1st edition (2020).

This is a story about one of the Dutch Caribbean islands: Bonaire.

A story that is shaped by the people of Bonaire and that may help develop this small beautiful island into an example where well-being and prosperity are balanced with cultural heritage. This vision builds further on the local history of planning, linking ongoing Bonairean and Dutch visions and strategies. It shows Bonaire as an example of embracing nature for our livelihoods.

Experts from Bonaire and The Netherlands have developed this vision for the island in 2050 to inspire you. It is the result of a series of design sessions, interviews and workshops with local experts, decision makers and researchers in the field of nature, culture, recreation, agricul - ture and governance. The results are views of a future in which economic development and a nature inclusive society join forces to maintain what is precious, and to improve what is already damaged or threatened. We call this a ‘nature inclusive vision’.

Some of the challenges that were addressed during the mapping process included managing (mass) tourism and population growth, prevent - ing high erosion rates due to free-roaming cat - tle, recharging fresh water in the soil, increasing the use of renewable energy, and adaptation to sea level rise. This would strengthen nature and tackle the one-sided dependency on tourism. Together, we have mapped potential nature-in - clusive measures and deliberated where, why and how these could be adopted. These poten - tial measures include for example rooftop water harvesting, reforestation and greening gardens using indigenous species, growing local food, creating cactus fences, installing solar panels and coral restoration.

This vision looks into the policy context and challenges and shows you the characteristics and cultural contexts of the different landscapes of Bonaire. It considers the inclusive concepts that nature can offer to help Bonaire in navigat - ing some of the challenges that were mapped out. This vision is illustrated by three-dimen - sional landscape visualisations; a Bonaire as you have never seen it before...

Contents of the booklet:

  • A new story
  • A policy background
  • Nature inclusive planning
  • Bonaire's challenges
    • Urban and elite estate expansion
    • A changing climate
    • Diversifying the economy
    • Using renewable energy
    • Managing tourism
    • Recharging fresh water in the soil
    • Maintaining, enhancing and restoring nature
    • Local produce and healthy diets
    • Flourishing cultural heritage
  • Interweaving nature in Bonaire's landscapes - a vision towards the future
    • Kralendijk urban fabric
    • Calm cliff coast
    • Calcareous ancient forest plateau
    • North-western hills
    • Traditional valley of Rincon
    • Kunuku
    • Caribbean savanna
    • Windswept inhospitable northeast coast
    • Lac Lagoon
    • Southern flats
    • Scrubby southern limestone pavement
    • Unoccopied island of Klein Bonaire
  • Next steps

This 2nd edition booklet and accompanying map with impact indicators, is based on the following reports:

Date
2022
Data type
Media
Theme
Education and outreach
Geographic location
Bonaire
Image

A nature inclusive vision for Bonaire in 2050

Bonaire, one of the Dutch Caribbean islands, is facing major challenges: managing (mass) tourism and population growth, preventing high erosion rates due to free-roaming cattle, recharging fresh water into the soil, increasing the use of renewable energy, adaptation to sea level rise and extreme weather events, halting biodiversity loss and tackling the unilateral dependency on tourism. In thirty years, Bonaire inevitably will look different. Progressing on current trends will only increase the challenges, a new way of thinking, planning and acting is needed.

Together with local experts a vision for Bonaire in 2050 is portrayed, in which nature and natural processes play a key role in all development activities – a ‘nature inclusive vision’. The vision aims to inspire. It outlines a future in which economic development and a nature inclusive society join forces to maintain what is precious, and to improve what is already impaired or threatened.

The report starts by describing the policy context and challenges. It then looks at what nature inclusive concepts can offer to navigate some of the challenges Bonaire is experiencing illustrated by three-dimensional landscape visualisations.

Challenges:

  • Urban and elite estate expansion
  • A changing climate
  • Diversifying the economy
  • Managing tourism
  • Recharging fresh water into the soil
  • Using renewable energy
  • Maintaining, enhancing and restoring nature
  • Locl produce and healthy diets
  • Flourishing cultural heritage

This report is also published as graphical, more accesible publication. You can find that booklet here.

Date
2020
Data type
Research report
Theme
Research and monitoring
Geographic location
Bonaire
Image