Management plan

Bonaire national marine park management plan 2006

The Bonaire National Marine Park was first established in 1979. It surrounds the island of Bonaire and includes the satellite island and the waters around Klein Bonaire. Bonaire lies in the Southern Caribbean approximately 100km (60 miles) north of Venezuela and 12’ north of the equator. Bonaire is unusual in that it is a true oceanic island, separated from the South American mainland by a deep water trench. Bonaire is part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands and is regarded by the European Union as an Overseas Territory. The marine park falls entirely within the territorial waters and jurisdiction of the Island of Bonaire and is protected by the Marine Environment Ordinance (A.B 1991 Nr.8). The marine park was declared a National Park by the Central Government of the Netherlands Antilles in November 1999. For issues related to World Heritage, Ramsar wetlands, threatened and endangered species, migratory species and marine pollution the Central Government Department of Nature and the Environment (MINA) also has jurisdiction.

The marine park includes 2,700 hectares of coral reef, seagrass and mangrove ecosystems and provides habitat for a diverse range of marine species including over 50 species of stony coral and more than 350 species of reef fish. Sea turtles nest on the shores of Klein Bonaire and forage in Lac, a semi enclosed seagrass and mangrove bay located on the islands windward shore. Bottlenose and Spinner dolphin as well as various species of whale can be found seasonally in the seas around Bonaire. Bonaire is regularly visited by migratory birds.

Bonaire has a well deserved international reputation for excellence in the field of SCUBA diving and is routinely listed in the top five destinations for the Caribbean.

The Bonaire National Marine Park consists of the waters around Bonaire from the high water mark to the 200’ (60m) depth contour, the island of Klein Bonaire and its surrounding waters and the mangrove, seagrass and coral reefs of Lac. The park is managed by a local non governmental, not for profit foundation, STINAPA Bonaire which has a co-management structure with stakeholders, conservationists and local interest groups represented on the Board. The day to day management is carried out under the supervision of a Director but the Marine Park manager, Chief Ranger and Rangers employed by STINAPA Bonaire.

The marine park is managed predominately for biodiversity conservation, the promotion of sustainable use and for the protection of cultural and historical sites within the park with the aim of providing protection for the island’s unique marine resources whilst allowing appropriate recreational and commercial use to be made of the park.

This is the first management plan for the Bonaire National Marine Park. Rapid changes in management over the past six years have highlighted the need for a strategic document to guide management decision making and to better define the mission, goals and objective of the park. It is also a prerequisite for Bonaire’s World Heritage Site nomination and essential if the park is going to begin monitoring its own effectiveness.

This document has been prepared in close consultation with STINAPA Bonaire, their management and staff and a considerable number of stakeholders and stakeholder group representatives.

The plan specifies management goals and strategies for the Bonaire National Marine Park related to the park’s mission, which is to conserve and manage the natural, cultural and historical resources within the park, allowing their sustainable use for the benefit of current and future generations. It also identifies the major existing and potential threats and issues facing the park from ecological, social and cultural perspectives and includes substantial input from stakeholders. It is designed to be an adaptive management tool.

Date
2006
Data type
Other resources
Theme
Governance
Geographic location
Bonaire
Image

St Maarten Marine Park Management Plan 2007

The St Maarten Marine Park was first established in 1997. It surrounds the Dutch side of St Martin
from the average high water mark to a depth of 20m on the east coast and a depth of 30m on
the south coast. St Martin lies in the North Eastern Caribbean (63º N, 18º W) within the Lesser
Antilles island group. St Maarten is situated upon the Anguilla Bank, a geological formation
including Anguilla and St Barthélemy. The island is the smallest island in the world to be shared
between to sovereign states – French St Martin to the North and Dutch Sint Maarten to the South.
St Maarten is part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands and is regarded by the European Union as
an overseas territory. The marine park falls entirely within the territorial waters and jurisdiction of
St Maarten and is expected to be protected by a Marine Park Ordinance by early 2007. For issues
related to international treaties, threatened and endangered species, migratory species and
marine pollution the Central Government Department of Nature and the Environment (MINA) also
has jurisdiction.
The marine environment of St Maarten includes more than 15km2 of globally threatened coral
reef as well as seagrass and mangrove ecosystems. St Maarten’s marine environment is a home,
migratory stop over or breeding site for 3 IUCN Red List Species, 10 CITES Appendix I species
and 89 Appendix II species. The beaches and waters attract in the region of 2 million visitors a
year, creating employment for 85% of the islands population. Tourism and the marine industry
contribute $500 million and $30 million to the economy respectively and both depend on the well
being of St Maarten’s marine resources.
The Marine Park is managed by a local non-profit, non-governmental organisation called Nature
Foundation St Maarten which has a co-management structure with stakeholders, conservationists
and other interested parties on the board. The management of the marine park is carried out by
the Marine Park Manager and the marine park ranger. An office manager also works on the
marine park administration and organisation and an education and outreach officer is shared with
the nearby Dutch Islands of Saba and St Eustatius.
The mission of the marine park is to manage, conserve and restore St. Maarten’s marine natural,
cultural and historical resources for education, ecological functionality and sustainable use with
continued stakeholder participation, for the benefit of current and future generations.
This is the first management plan for the St Maarten Marine Park. Recent changes in
management and staff members have highlighted the need for a strategic document to guide
management decision making and to better define the mission, goals and objective of the park.
Management planning and a clear strategy for management is a prerequisite if the park is going
to begin monitoring its own effectiveness.
This document has been prepared in close consultation with Nature Foundation St Maarten, their
management and staff and a considerable number of stakeholders and stakeholder group
representatives. The plan specifies management goals and strategies for the St Maarten Marine
Park related to the park’s mission and goals. It also identifies the major existing and potential
threats and issues facing the park from ecological, social and cultural perspectives. It is also
designed to provide a framework for adaptive management.
 
Retrieved from http://www.naturefoundationsxm.org on April 13, 2015

Date
2007
Data type
Other resources
Theme
Governance
Geographic location
St. Maarten
Author

St Maarten Proposed Land Parks Management Plan 2009

NAFSXM would like to secure a long term management agreement to protect the environment of
the entire Dutch side of the island. The proposed St. Maarten Land Parks will offer protection to
the island’s indigenous terrestrial flora and fauna while allowing sustainable recreation. There is
currently no management of the catchments on St. Maarten that drain into the marine
environment. Integrated catchment and coastal management is essential for the future well-being
of St. Maarten’s natural resources since activities on land directly affect the water around St.
Maarten.
This document clearly defines the Vision, Mission and Goals of the St. Maarten Land Parks,
identifies the main values and issues and states the key management strategies required to
manage the proposed areas. This provides a framework to develop clear objectives for the
manager and staff, which will aid the evaluation of management successes. For this management
plan to serve the needs of St. Maarten Land Parks, it is vital that it is periodically reviewed and
updated. The plan provides detailed background information about the status of the human and
physical landscapes of St Maarten. This acts as a contextual reference for any users, a tool for
lobbying stakeholders and as a resource for education.
As the St. Maarten Land Parks become realised this plan should form the basis of detailed action
plans for each of the proposed Land Parks
 
Retreived from http://www.naturefoundationsxm.org on April 13, 2015

Date
2009
Data type
Other resources
Theme
Governance
Geographic location
St. Maarten

Species Management Plan: Yellow-shouldered Amazon Parrot, Amazona barbadensis, Dutch Caribbean

MANAGEMENT RECOMMENDATIONS:

Threat mitigation

  • Boost population growth rate and address nest site limitation
  • Reduce poaching

Habitat protection

  • Grow plants for rural and urban restoration projects
  • Secure strategic locations for restoration
  • Control herbivores

Legislation

  • Encourage increased implementation of legislation
  • Develop additional protected areas

Surveillance and enforcement

  • Reduce poaching

Outreach and education

  • Increase awareness of habitat degradation
  • Change community attitudes towards parrots

Research and monitoring

  • Improve understanding of population dynamics
  • Maximize out-breeding
  • Identify key locations for habitat restoration
  • Investigate the distribution of parrots and their food

Other recommendations

  • Reintroduce YSAP to Aruba
  • Increase National Park management organization capacity
  • Maintain the YSAP management plan process 
Date
2012
Data type
Research report
Theme
Education and outreach
Research and monitoring
Geographic location
Bonaire

St. Eustatius National Marine Park Management Plan 2007

Abstract:

The St. Eustatius Marine Park was created in 1996 and extends around the entire island from the high water line to 30m depth contour. St. Eustatius lies in the North Eastern Caribbean (17o 49’N, 62o 98’W) within the Lesser Antilles island group. The island is volcanic, and ancient weathered volcanic cones dominate the landscape including The Quill (600m) in the South and Boven (289m) in the North West. St. Eustatius is part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands and is regarded by the European Union as an overseas territory. The marine park falls entirely within the territorial waters and jurisdiction of St. Eustatius and is protected by the Marine Environment Ordinance which was passed in 1996. For issues related to international treaties, threatened and endangered species, migratory species and marine pollution the Central Government Department of Nature and the Environment (MINA) also has jurisdiction.

The St. Eustatius Marine Park covers an area of 27.5 km2 and protects a variety of habitats, including pristine coral reefs (drop off walls, volcanic ‘fingers’ and ‘bombs’, spur and groove systems), 18th century shipwrecks and modern-day artificial reefs to promote fishing and dive tourism (including a 100m cable-laying ship). Within the Park are two actively-managed Reserves in which no fishing or anchoring is permitted to conserve marine biodiversity, protect fish stocks and promote sustainable tourism. In addition to regular mooring maintenance (dive, snorkel and yacht sites), patrols and research, the Marine Park works closely with three local dive centres to ensure that diving practices minimise impact on the reef. Statia’s marine environment is a home, migratory stop over or breeding site for 4 IUCN Red List Species, 10 CITES Appendix I species and 98 Appendix II species.

The Marine Park is managed by a local non governmental, not for profit foundation (‘stichting’} called St. Eustatius National Parks Foundation (STENAPA) incorporated in the Netherlands Antilles on 21st November 1988 and first registered with the St Maarten Chamber of Commerce and Industry on the 28th August 1995 (registration #80371). STENAPA has a co-management structure with stakeholders, conservationists and other interested parties on the board. The management of the marine park is carried out by the Parks Manager and the park rangers. Two office administrators also work on the marine park administration and organisation and an education and outreach officer is shared with the nearby Dutch Caribbean islands of Saba and St. Maarten.

The mission of the marine park is to manage and conserve natural, cultural and historical marine resources of St. Eustatius for sustainable use with continued stakeholder participation, for the benefit of current and future generations.

This is the second management plan for the St. Eustatius Marine Park. The first management plan was written in 1997 by The CARMABI Foundation and Marine and Coastal Resource Management Saba with financial support from the KNAP fund. The rapid development of the Marine Park and the successes in management have highlighted the need for a strategic document to consolidate management decision making and to define the mission, goals and objectives of the park.

Management planning and a clear strategy for management is a prerequisite if the park is going to begin monitoring its own effectiveness.

Extensive stakeholder consultation identified key external and management issues which need to be addressed within the timeframe of this management plan:

External Issues:

  • Artisanal fishing
  • Bleaching
  • Commercial shipping
  • Development
  • Diving/snorkelling

Management Issues:

  • Sustainable financing
  • Stakeholder owne rship
  • Presence and enforcement 

This document has been prepared in close consultation with STENAPA, their management and staff and a considerable number of stakeholders and stakeholder group representatives. The plan specifies management goals and strategies for the St. Eustatius Marine Park related to the park’s mission and goals. It also identifies the major existing and potential threats and issues facing the park from ecological, social and cultural perspectives. It is designed to provide a framework for developing transparent adaptive management processes. 

Date
2007
Data type
Research report
Theme
Governance
Geographic location
St. Eustatius
Author

Saba Bank - Special Marine Area Management Plan 2008

Findings

A management plan was prepared in close consultation with a considerable number of stakeholders and stakeholder group representatives.

The plan specifies management goals and strategies for the Saba Bank Management Organization (SBMO) related to the organization mission. It also identifies the major existing and potential threats and issues facing the Bank from ecological, social and cultural perspectives and includes substantial input from stakeholders. It is designed to be an adaptive management tool.

Below is a very brief overview of the management plan

Part I: Saba Bank Background Information

  • Location and situation
  • Geology and geomorphology
  • Marine habitats, flora and fauna and natural resources
  • Human uses
  • Critical threats to the Saba Bank:
  • Overexploitation of fishery resources
  • Impacts from tanker anchorage on benthic communities
  • Impacts of tanker traffic on fishermen and traps
  • Global climate change

PART II: Management Environment

  • Vision: To secure a natural protected area that represents a unique and spectacular ecosystem; Mission: To contribute to the preservation of Saba’s natural heritage and promote the sustainable use of the natural resources; and Goals.
  • Governance
  • Human resources
  • Physical resources
  • Finance
  • Stakeholders

Summary of Issues (see below)

Management Recommendations (PART III: Management Environment)

Key issue: Create a clearly defined conch reserve on the Saba Bank.
Actions: Create and implement the queen conch reserve with no commercial take of conch. Research into queen conch stocks.

Key issue: Monitor the landings of commercial fish catches (there is currently very little data available on the yearly landings from the commercial fishermen of Saba).
Actions: Collect records of fishing activity on the Saba Bank. Develop a system to report landing from commercial fishermen. This dataset will lay the foundation for establishing a long-term commercial fisherman reporting system, which in turn will enable the SBMO to assess the state of the Saba Bank’s fish stocks.

Key issue: Enforcement of fisheries regulations (there is currently minimal enforcement of the fisheries regulations)
Actions: Collaboration; work with the Government, Harbour Office and Police to establish clear enforcement procedures and publicize the outcome. Encourage local fishermen to work with the police in the enforcement of the regulations. The SCF is in the process of having one of their rangers trained as a special agent.

Key issue: Monitor red hind spawning aggregation; assist in the development of a spawning aggregation closed season.
Actions: Gather initial information: determine where the majority of the fishermen are from and gauge trends in fish densities during the aggregations. Consult with stakeholders, including both the public and fishermen. Provide assistance in draft legislation for closing the spawning aggregation.

Key issue: Monitor tanker anchorage damage on the Saba Bank.
Actions: Monitor the impacts of anchoring. Prevent anchorage within the 12 miles of territorial waters. Provide whatever support is required for the Central Governments proposal to have the Bank recognized as a Particularly Sensitive Sea Area (PSSA).

Key issue: Evaluate the potential for artificial reef development on the Saba Bank.
Actions: Create and monitor an experimental artificial reef.

Key issue: Monitor and evaluate coral health.
Actions: Continue to monitor bleaching. Continue to monitor the state of the coral at existing sites established in 2007 on a regular basis. Adapt methods where appropriate. Co-ordinate with other islands. Communicate methods and results with St. Eustatius, St Maarten, and other DCNA islands, as well as the regional Global Coral Reef Monitoring Networkm (GCRMN) nodes.

Key issue: Facilitate and promote research from visiting scientists
Actions: Promote scientific research on the Bank (conferences, local, national media, and presentations). Provide assistance to researchers (providing logistic support and access to equipment)

Key issue: Work with the commercial fishermen in the management of the fisheries resource.
Actions: Promote the creation of a fisheries association among the fishermen as key stakeholders.

Key issue: Establish sustainable financing mechanisms
Actions: Raise money from fishing permits. Seek structural funding from the Dutch government under the new constitutional relationships.

Date
2008
Data type
Research report
Theme
Governance
Research and monitoring
Geographic location
Saba bank
Author