Fisheries

Local scale hydrodynamics and oxygen fluctuations near coral reefs

Summary

Coral reefs are a vital part of Curaçao’s economy, providing revenue from ecotourism and fisheries, as well as providing shoreline protection. A vital coral species, Diploria strigosa, is a major reef-building species around the island, and contributes enormously to the health of the reefs, making it a prime candidate for this project. Physical oceanic processes, such as waves and currents, influence the health of these corals by introducing oxygen-rich water through mixing of the water column. In order to understand more about the growth and vitality of coral around Curaçao, it is therefore critical to understand how these processes influence the movement of oxygen around coral reefs.

This thesis set out to collect field data to investigate the existence of a relationship between hydrodynamics and dissolved oxygen near coral reefs around the island of Curaçao, as part of a larger project, the SEALINK project. SEALINK, part of the Dutch Research Council (NWO)’s Caribbean Research program, is an interdisciplinary research initiative to assess the impact of land-based and water-borne substances on the coral reefs of the Dutch Caribbean. Through a fieldwork campaign, dissolved oxygen concentration, wave data, and current velocity data was collected from seven study sites on the southern coast of Curaçao. Acoustic Doppler current profilers (AD2CP) and oxygen loggers were deployed through diving, and left on the seafloor to measure for six hours. A statistical analysis was run to test the validity of using current velocities as a predictor for dissolved oxygen values. Finally, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was created using the fieldwork data in order to assist in the understanding of processes that influence dissolved oxygen around coral reefs. The results from fieldwork show that the extent of the relationship between waves, currents, and dissolved oxygen depends greatly on the location and tidal cycle. Study sites closer to the eastern point of the island showed that velocity and dissolved oxygen are connected, and that velocity has a greater capacity to predict dissolved oxygen values. The CFD model assists in a deeper comprehension of the influence of flow and other processes that can impact dissolved oxygen fluctuations around coral reefs.

Date
2022
Data type
Research report
Theme
Research and monitoring
Report number
Master of Marine Science Utrecht University
Geographic location
Curacao

ANALYSIS OF THE SEAFOOD SUPPLY CHAIN ON BONAIRE, SABA AND ST. EUSTATIUS

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Fisheries on Bonaire, Saba and St. Eustatius (Caribbean Netherlands) are important for the local economy and food provision on the islands. In the Caribbean Netherlands, fisheries and (dive) tourism contribute significantly to the GDP, with 1% and >50% respectively. Whereas in the Netherlands, this is only 0,1% for fisheries and the fisheries industry (Agrimatie, 2020) and 4,4% for tourism (CBS, 2019).

Fisheries can have a negative impact on the health of a marine ecosystem. In the past, fishing activities have negatively affected the health of Caribbean coral reefs (de Graaf et al. 2015, de Graaf 2016 & de Graaf et al. 2017). The current impact of local fisheries in the Caribbean Netherlands on the marine ecosystem is largely unknown but is expected to be prevalent. Fisheries are regulated through outdated fisheries regulations (Ecovision, 2018). Fisheries monitoring on Saba and St. Eustatius is limited to the landings only. On Bonaire, no monitoring is being carried out. In addition, very limited information on fish stock health is available and no studies into the seafood market structure have been performed. For the Caribbean Netherlands, no reliable information is available on the import and export of seafood, seafood sales nor consumption statistics.

This market study was performed to analyze the local fisheries and seafood supply chain on Bonaire, Saba and St. Eustatius. The goal of this study is to provide recommendations to WWFNL to enhance sustainable practices in the fisheries and seafood supply chain in the Caribbean Netherlands through market mechanisms. A total of 361 interviews were performed and additional information was acquired by a literature study and consulting local stakeholders and authorities. Interviewees were subdivided into four groups: professional fishermen, supermarkets/ restaurants, consumers and importers/exporters. Interviews from the four categories were analyzed for each island separately.

On Bonaire, fishermen mainly catch pelagic species and they primary sell these to middlemen on the island. The vast majority of the restaurants on Bonaire serve locally sourced seafood (85%) while only few supermarkets sell local seafood (27%). Fishermen on Bonaire also indicated to fish on and/or source seafood, including conch and lobster, from Las Aves (Venezuela) indicating that not all ‘local fish’ is fished in the waters of Bonaire. Whether ‘local’ seafood sold on Bonaire originates from Las Aves or Bonaire itself is unknown and unmonitored, masking a potential shortage in local fish stocks. Fishermen on Saba mainly fish for lobster and redfish. Almost all lobster is exported to St. Maarten, part of which is shipped onwards to Hong Kong. Some fishermen also sell part of their catch to local restaurants and consumers. During this research, all restaurants on Saba said to serve local seafood, and 40% of the supermarkets sell local seafood. Fishermen on St. Eustatius primarily catch lobster and reef fish and indicated that they sell their catch to local consumers, restaurants or transport it to St. Barthelemy. However, according to the former data monitoring officer (DMO), a large part of the lobster catch is also exported to St. Maarten and St. Martin. This was not indicated by the interviewees. Of the interviewed restaurants 58% serve local fish and only 22% of the supermarkets sell local seafood on Saba.

We have found that, to stimulate sustainable practices, supermarkets and restaurants on Bonaire and Saba would consider promoting local sustainable species, boycott less sustainable species and/or would consider to implement an ecolabel. Boycotting less sustainable species is not a preferred option according to restaurants and supermarkets on St. Eustatius.

Consumers on Bonaire and St. Eustatius primarily buy local seafood directly from fishermen. However, during the interviews on Bonaire it became clear that many consumers are not aware that these fishermen are in fact middlemen. On Saba, consumers have no preference for buying local seafood at a certain location. Quality is indicated as the most important purchasing criterion, followed by origin (local vs non-local) and sustainability. Consumers indicated to be willing to pay more for sustainable species.

From this market study, it became clear that the seafood supply chains on Bonaire, Saba and St. Eustatius completely lack transparency. There are currently no central locations where consumers can buy local seafood. No information is available or provided on the species, origin and capture method.

On Bonaire, fixed prices of local seafood were implemented by the government in 1996 to ensure that local residents are able to buy locally sourced seafood (see Appendix 5). These fixed prices have not been revised since. Fishermen are still receiving the same price for their fish, whilst the costs of fishing and living have increased and catches have declined.

When trying to obtain information on the fisheries sector from local authorities, responsible agencies and/or international databases, it was found that structural, reliable and comprehensive data on import/export, number of fishermen, total landings and registered seafood selling locations is not available for Bonaire, Saba nor St. Eustatius. Because of this lack of information, we have not been able to draw quantitative conclusions from information gathered with the interviews. Therefore, we have not been able to give detailed recommendations on specific market mechanisms. However, we have formulated recommendations for qualitative improvements in the seafood sector in the Caribbean Netherlands. These recommendations are summarized below.

RECOMMENDATIONS

We recommend to implement a comprehensive fisheries management plan on Bonaire, Saba and St. Eustatius. This fisheries management plan must include a monitoring scheme in which at least the total landings per species, the bycatch levels, fishing gear, number of fishermen and fishing trips are monitored and registered for each island. With this information, together with fishery-independent data where required, fish stock assessments can be carried out which will provide insights into the effects of fishing activities on the fish stocks. This monitoring must be structural and will provide information to evaluate and adapt the management system when necessary. The fisheries management plan should also include mandatory fishermen registration, improved data collection on seafood trade flows, including the import and export of seafood and a traceability system.

In the past, both national and local fisheries regulations have been developed and implemented without participation of fishermen. This has resulted in unclarity about the responsibility of legislation as well as unfamiliarity with, lack of support for and non-compliance with the law. Fishermen, the local government and national park authorities should work together in updating and implementing marine park regulations when these affect or concern fisheries. This will increase involvement, understanding and compliance and will improve collaboration between these stakeholders.

We recommend to increase the visibility of the fisheries on the islands through a visibility and awareness campaign targeting consumers, restaurants and other seafood buyers and resellers. This will improve the ability of consumers to find and recognize local fish and make sustainable choices, as well as becoming aware of the impact and role these fisheries have on the islands. Awareness on sustainability in the fisheries sector should include advice on which species to choose or which to avoid. This visibility and awareness campaign will also be beneficial for the fisheries as this will enable them to position themselves as a sustainable, economically and culturally important actor on the islands. This will enhance their sense of responsibility and recognition on the island and hereby increase the incentive to follow regulations and collaborate with fisheries authorities.

Date
2020
Data type
Research report
Theme
Education and outreach
Research and monitoring
Geographic location
Bonaire
Saba
Saba bank
St. Eustatius

Using the perception of fishermen, residents and tourists to support sustainable fishing practices on the Saba Bank

Summary  

Saba is a tropical island in the Dutch Caribbean that is known for its unique ecosystems and rich biodiversity both above and below the waterline. Only 5 km from Saba lies the Saba Bank, the third largest atoll in the world and largest marine protected area of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. The rich biodiversity and abundance of marine species attracts tourists and fishermen to Saba and the Bank. Both fisheries and tourism are therefore of great socio-economic importance to Saba. However, both sectors have a direct impact on Saba’s ecosystems. For instance, in both the lobster and redfish trap fisheries, species are being overfished, with bycatch being an issue of concern. The Saba Conservation Foundation conserves and enhances the unique terrestrial and marine environment of Saba and therefore plays an important role in both sectors. 

A precautionary and adaptive management approach must be developed to halt the decline of the fisheries stocks. For this approach a mutual understanding and cooperation between stakeholders, in this case fishermen, residents and tourists, is required. A first step towards this understanding is to engage in a dialogue with them. Engaging with stakeholders is important to understand their knowledge and interests, interact more effectively with them and increase their support for given policies or programs, that may be executed by the Saba Conservation Foundation. Therefore, my internship aims to assess fishermen’s perceptions and the knowledge and attitudes of residents and tourists on and towards Saba’s fisheries.  

From a literature review and semi-structured interviews, I obtained fishermen’s perceptions on the current status of Saba’s fisheries. The perceptions of Saba’s residents and tourists on the current status of Saba’s fisheries were obtained through a questionnaire about seafood and sharks.  

Although my study was challenged by interview and questionnaire limitations, I found that fishermen have not really noticed a change in their fisheries stocks, despite the monitored decline. Furthermore, from fishermen’s perceptions it becomes clear that overfishing and bycatch are issues to be tackled, with the help of funding and/or assistance to improve the current status of Saba’s fisheries. I also found that residents and tourists know the most important commercially fished species on the Saba Bank and prefer and/or mostly eat those species as well. The most important reasons not to eat a certain type of seafood for both respondent groups relates to environmental concerns such as: endangered-, overfished- and/or protected species. Hence, residents and tourists know quite a lot about Saba’s fisheries and seem to act on that knowledge most of the time. Moreover, residents and tourists have a very high knowledge level on sharks and both a positive attitude towards them. Releasing sharks caught as bycatch is strongly preferred by both respondent groups.  

My internship shows that Saban fishermen are willing to solve the current issues of overfishing and bycatch and that residents and tourists want to see a sustainable fishery in which sharks are treated well. Therefore, it is important that fishermen, residents and tourists come together and collaborate to support sustainable fishing practices on Saba and the Saba Bank. 

Date
2022
Data type
Research report
Theme
Research and monitoring
Report number
Masters Internship Report
Geographic location
Saba bank

Status and trends in Saba Bank fisheries: Analysis of fisheries data collected over the period 2011-2020

This report is an update of earlier published reports on the status and trends in the of Saba Bank fisheries (Graaf et al. 2017, Brunel et al. 2018). The new analyses presented here are based on three additional years (2018-2020) of data collected by the Saba Bank Management Unit.

Lobster fishery

After a period of increase from 2012 to 2015, fishing effort in the lobster fishery (Panulirus argus), has gradually declined in subsequent years, with nearly a halving of the effort between 2015 and 2020. The resulting landings of lobster have shown a similar pattern with an increase up to 2015 when they amounted to 78t, and, after a period of relative stability in 2016-2017, showed a marked decline to 27t in 2018, before partial recovery in 2019 and 2020. Increasing landings per unit effort (number per trip) indicate that the formerly reduced lobster abundance, which had been declining since 2000 and which reached its lowest level in 2011, has subsequently increased relatively steadily all through 2020, back to levels close to those of 2007. Length based proxies for exploitation level with respect to MSY suggest that there has been overfishing of the stock (F/FMSY >1) for all the period covered by the data, and the mean size of the lobsters landed has been decreasing over the last 5 years.

 

Lobster fishery fish bycatch

Mixed landings of reef fish in the lobster fishery have fluctuated between 7 and 15t annually. The biomass index derived from the LPUE of these bycatch species also shows a decrease of about 35% from high levels in 2000 and 2007 to lowest levels in 2011. After a partial recovery from 2011 to 2013, the biomass declined slowly until 2018, and then rose sharply in 2019. Among the three main species landed, two - the Queen triggerfish, Balistes vetula, and the white grunt, Haemulon album,- are being overfished according to length-based indicators while the Red hind, Epinephelus guttatus, is being fully exploited (F/FMSY close to 1). Red fish trap fishery The figure below gives a summary of the trends in the red fish trap fishery, which principally targets a mix of deep water snappers such as the Silk snapper, Lutjanus vivanus, the Vermillion snapper, Rhomboplites aurorubens, the Blackfin snapper, Lutjanus buccanella and the Lane snapper, Lutjanus synagris. In the redfish trap fishery (Lutjanidae), the number of trips has grown from 335 to 566 (corresponding to 10 000 and 13 400 traps set respectively) during the period 2012 to 2016 but dropped considerably to 271 trips in 2017 (5 600 traps). In the last three years, the effort increased again to reach nearly 600 trips in 2020 (16 000 traps), the highest effort for the whole period considered. The landings of redfish (mainly silk snapper and in smaller proportions blackfin and vermillion snapper) broadly followed the variation of the effort, with the highest estimates (>50t) for the last two years, recovering from a low value in 2017 (25t). This drop in snapper landings and effort in 2017 is the consequence of a 6- month closed season voluntarily implemented by the fishermen that year (Graaf et al. 2017).

The biomass index derived from the LPUEs shows a decrease of 50% between 2007 and 2011, followed by a steady increase until 2019 and a sharp decrease in 2020. Length-based indicators for fishing mortality indicate that silk snapper and vermillion snapper have been heavily overfished, with a ratio F/FMSY higher than 1.3. For the other two snapper species (but also for the vermilion snapper in the most recent years), the length composition data is scarce which results in a large uncertainty. Nevertheless, the F/FMSY proxy also suggests that these two stocks are subject to overfishing although this is less pronounced than for the two principal species.

 

Other fishing métiers

Bottom drop longline, pelagic and bycatch landings have remained much less important and have shown no significant new developments

Overall conclusion

For both the targeted lobster and “redfish” stocks, the LPUE based indices indicate that stock size overall increased since the beginning of the current port sampling program (2011), when they were at a lower level. In this report, length-based indicators of fishing mortality levels are presented for the first time. This provides new insights on the exploitation status of the stocks. These indicators suggest that, despite the overall increase in stock size, the stocks are subject to overfishing, slightly for the lobsters, but more severely for the redfish. With the current declining trend in effort for the lobster fishery, it can be expected that the fishing mortality is declining. It is important to continue monitoring the fishery (and particularly length measurements of the landings) to see if the length-based indicator will reflect such a decline in fishing mortality in coming years. The situation is more worrying for the redfish fishery for which the recent trend is an increase in the fishing effort. This, combined with the indication that the fishing mortality of these stocks has been well above FMSY, suggest that management action is needed to bring the fishing mortality to lower levels. Again, continued monitoring of the fishery is essential, as well as improved biological sampling and reporting of the catches. The current ability to accurately estimate the status of individual redfish species is limited by the fact that the fisheries data is not reported by species. Being able to split the landings per species, either by encouraging the fishers to report landings per species, or by increasing the intensity of biological sampling, would, on the long term, provide a better basis to manage the “redfish” snapper stocks. The present study further suggests that three key finfish species, which are mainly landed as bycatch from the lobster fishery, are either being overfished (Queen triggerfish and White grunt) or are at the verge of being overfished (Red hind). The Queen triggerfish and Red hind formerly were common in the landings in the Dutch Caribbean but now still only have significant populations on the Saba Bank. Therefore, both of these species require a cautionary management approach as well.

Date
2021
Data type
Research report
Theme
Research and monitoring
Report number
Wageningen University & Research report C062/21
Geographic location
Saba bank

Species Action Plan Nassau Grouper

Action Plan for Nassau Grouper consists of:

  • Threats: overfishing, invasive species, climate change
  • Management goals
  • Recommendations: management, legislation, enforcement, science and monitoring, stakeholders, networking, information-education
  • Gaps: •population data not available for the Dutch Caribbean, weak island legislation, CITES designation, CMS designation
  • General Information: description and biology
Date
2020
Data type
Other resources
Theme
Governance
Geographic location
Aruba
Bonaire
Saba
Saba bank
St. Maarten
Author
Image

Beleidsvisie landbouw, veeteelt en visserij Bonaire 2014-2029

In de economie van Bonaire neemt de agrarische sector een bescheiden plaats in. Naar schatting is minder dan 1% van de economisch actieve bevolking full time werkzaam in de sectoren landbouw, veeteelt en visserij. Er zijn twee fulltime boeren en naar schatting 20 full time vissers.
Desalniettemin heeft landbouw, veeteelt en visserij een sociaaleconomische functie voor veel mensen. Inkomsten uit landbouw, veeteelt en visserij zijn een aanvulling op het salaris of pensioen.
De huidige landbouw, veeteelt en visserij wordt op een extensieve wijze beoefend. De investeringen en de opbrengsten zijn laag.
De lokale landbouw voorziet in een klein deel aan de behoefte van de markt op het gebied van groenten en fruit. De veeteelt voorziet in eieren en geiten- en schapenvlees. Alleen voor eieren is Bonaire zelfvoorzienend. De visserij is voornamelijk seizoensgebonden en voorziet de lokale markt. Er wordt ook vis geïmporteerd.
De loslopende geiten, schapen, varkens en ezels brengen ook economische schade toe aan Bonaire.

  • Schade aan de natuur en milieu door overbegrazing, met erosie en sedimentatie en vervuiling van het koraalrif tot gevolg
  • Schade voor bedrijven en particulieren, die moeten investeren in het bouwen van hekken en omheiningen rond erven en percelen.
  • Gevaarlijke situaties in het verkeer.

Het op korte termijn beschikbaar komende gezuiverde afvalwater en het rond de Dienst LVV beschikbare terrein bieden echter kansen voor geïrrigeerde land- en tuinbouw op een voor Bonaire ongekende schaal. Hierdoor wordt ook duurzame veeteelt mogelijk.
Deze Beleidsvisie biedt kansen voor de economie, zoals duurzame en multifunctionele landbouw, veeteelt en visserij en een leefbaar en aantrekkelijk platteland. Door deze kansen komen er nieuwe investeringsmogelijkheden voor het bedrijfsleven.

Date
2014
Data type
Other resources
Theme
Governance
Geographic location
Bonaire

Udate on the 2012-2018 trends in the St.Eustatius fisheries

This report presents an overview of the trends in St Eustatius fisheries based on the fisheries data collected on the island during 2012-2018. The fishery on St Eustatius remains mostly conducted by small open boasts with outboard engines. The number of fishing trips carried out by the fleet increased over 2014 peaking in 2015 with roughly 100 trips per months, and subsequently decreased in the following years to an average of 25 trips per month in 2018.

The main activity is a lobster fishery using traps, also catching a mix of reef fish. This fishery is responsible for nearly 70% of the lobster landings on St Eustatius. The trend in the annual landings in this fishery broadly follows the trends in the fishing effort, with landings reaching 30 tonnes in 2015 and decreasing to 11 tonnes in 2018. Landings of lobsters from the trap fishery show a strong seasonality with higher landings from September to March, and low landings during June-July. The abundance index (derived by modelling the landings per trip) indicates an overall increase in abundance from 2012 to 2017, and an apparent decrease in lobster abundance in 2018. The average carapace length (CL) shows interannual variations without any specific trend, but is on average 95 mm for females and 102.5 for males. This means that an average of 41% of the lobsters are landed below the legal size limit (95 mm). This problem is especially acute for females of which 56% of the landings are of sublegal size.

The species composition of the bycatch of reef fish in the lobster traps is very diverse, and is dominated by Acanthuridae (Blue Tang, Doctorfish, Surgeonfish), Ostraciidae (Honeycomb and Scrawled Cowfish) and Serranidae (Coney and Red Hind). The trends in the reef fish bycatch in the lobster traps also followed the trend in effort, with values ranging from 2.5 to 9.9 tonnes caught per year. The biomass index calculated from the catch per trip suggests a decrease in fish abundance between 2014 and 2016 and a small increase thereafter. Length frequency data for the main fish species caught in the lobster traps do not show any notable changes over the period studied.

The second most important fishing activities after trap fishing are scuba diving and free diving. Both activities catch lobster and fish, but while lobster and fish (mainly coney, red hind and lionfish) are in equal proportion in the landings from scuba diving, landings from free diving are largely dominated by lobsters. The lobster abundance index calculated from the catches per trip in free and scuba diving shows an increase from 2012 to 2016, and a sharp decrease thereafter. This is overall the same pattern as seen in trap-caught lobsters. The difference with the trend in the abundance index calculated based on trap data might be explained by spatial and depth differences in the distribution of the fishing effort between those fisheries. Scuba divers also conduct a fishery targeted on conch, representing roughly 40% of the trips. Estimates of the annual conch landings are very variable, and likely to be fairly uncertain due to the lack of information from logbooks in some years. The mean length of the conch landed appears to be stable over time, at 24.5 cm and 23.7 cm for females and males respectively.

Next to the traps and diving fisheries, different line fisheries are conducted on St Eustatius. A handline fishery on reef fish produced landings between 1.4 and 4.9 tonnes per year in the period 2014-2017, but with much lower estimates in 2018, mainly due to a drop in effort for this year. Large pelagic fish are also caught by trolling, with landings varying between 0.5 and 2.3 tonnes per year.
Our main recommendations in terms of both management and research and monitoring are as follows:
- Improve control of and compliance with lobster size-limit regulations.
- Develop a FAD fishery management plan as part of a St. Eustatius fisheries development plan.
- Improve port sampling monitoring and subsampling intensity to cover at least one third of the trips dedicated to each fishing metiér.
- Conduct a closer study on both the Coney and the Red Hind. Do this by combining more intensive port sampling and fisheries independent studies on the distribution and abundance of these species around St. Eustatius.

Date
2020
Data type
Research report
Theme
Research and monitoring
Report number
c031/20
Geographic location
St. Eustatius
Image

Raw fisheries data

Raw data of landings of fisheries on Saba. The data include: triplogs, fishing area, catch, fishing method, species composition, whale sightings, etc.

Please contact the DCBD administrator for more information.

 

 

Date
2019
Data type
Raw data
Theme
Research and monitoring
Geographic location
Saba
Saba bank
Image

Raw fisheries monitoring data on St. Eustatius (2017)

Raw data of fisheries monitoring activities and analysis. 

Please read this report for the analysis and outcomes.

 

 

 

Date
2017
Data type
Raw data
Theme
Research and monitoring
Tags
Geographic location
St. Eustatius

St. Eustatius fiesheries monitoring report 2017

Based on the fisheries data collected for 2017, St. Eustatius fishery continues to be a small-scale coastal fishery as described by Sybesma et al. (1993) and de Graaf et al. (2015). Lobster and fish landings for 2017 (52 metric tonnes kg and 17 metric tonnes respectively) were considerably more when compared to the 2012-2015 results of de Graaf et al. (2015). Fishing activity across the 12 fishing zones has remained the same since 2012. No activity was recorded at the Fish Aggregation Devices for 2017. Lobster traps were the most common gear used during the period followed by SCUBA. Lobster landings are seasonal with greater landings from January to February and November to December. Morphometric data collected for the Caribbean spiny lobster from 9 % of recorded lobster fishing trips, revealed that 28 % of males and 41 % of females were undersized. The average carapace length of females (97 mm) was close to the size limit (95 mm), which is concerning. An assessment of the lobster stock may be necessary to determine stock stability as 8 % of landed females were berried. Length frequency data for mixed reef fish was collected for 26 % of fishing trips. Large grouper species were rarely observed during port sampling with red hind being the dominant overall grouper species observed showing no seasonality throughout the period based on catch composition. Surgeonfish and the small groupers accounted for 44 % of the sampled catch by number (of individuals) while squirrelfish and the small groupers accounted for 46 % by weight. Pelagic species made up 4 % of landings by weight and < 1 % by number. Parrotfish in both weight and number accounted for 3 %. Parrotfish populations appear to be in a stable state as average length of species landed were greater than the average for each species across the Caribbean. When compared to other studies across the Caribbean, the 2017 data suggest that Statia’s parrotfish population seem to experience structurally low fishing pressure. Queen conch landings have remained steady over the last five years. Assessment of the conch morphometric data (39 % of total landings) suggests that increased harvesting has not yet had a measurable impact on population structure of St. Eustatius’s queen conch stock. The proposed annual combined commercial and recreational quota for 2015-2017 (4 % of estimated population size per year) nor the precautionary limit (8 % of estimated population size) recommended by the non-detrimental findings of 2014 was not exceeded during 2015-2017.

Find the raw data for this report here.

Date
2017
Data type
Research report
Theme
Research and monitoring
Tags
Geographic location
St. Eustatius
Image