Control programme

Scuba diving as a significant control on coral diversity

With the SCUBA diving industry growing at a reate of 7% per annum and a major qualifying agency havig just certified its 10 millionth diver, an increasing amount of direct pressure is being placed on marine organisms. In many tropical areas, diving tourism is concentrated in a small area and is often seen to be having an impact on bethic organisms....This study looks in detail at the role of SCUBA activity in coral divesrity maintenenace, and assesses its significace as a disturbance to the reefs of Bonaire

Data type
Other resources
Geographic location

Invasive Lionfish - A Guide to Control and Management

The invasion of lionfish (Pterois miles and P. volitans) may prove to be one of the greatest threats of this century to warm temperate and tropical Atlantic reefs and associated habitats. As the first marine reef fish invasive species to this region, lionfish are changing the culture of how reef managers view invasive species, the regional connectivity of marine reefs, and their vulnerability to marine invasions.

The term “lionfish” is now as notorious as the other major invaders of the last century, such as Asian carp, kudzu, zebra mussels, and sea lamprey. Originally imported into the United States as a popular aquarium fish, the lionfish is now one of the most abundant top-level predators of many reefs. Lionfish pose a threat to the integrity of the reef food web and are capable of impacting commercial fisher- ies, tourism, and overall coral reef health.

Viewed in context with other reef stressors — such as land-based pollution, climate change, and overfishing — the lionfish invasion is distinguished by two obvious characteristics.


The first outstanding characteristic of the lionfish invasion is that it has occurred rapidly across a wide geographic area. The initial confirmed lionfish sighting in the United States occurred in 1985, off Dania Beach, Florida. Some 15 years later, in 2000–2001, lionfish were identified as an established invader in the offshore waters of North Carolina, United States. At the time of this writing in 2012, lionfish are fully established throughout the Southeast United States, the Caribbean Sea, and much of the Gulf of Mexico. Lionfish are expected to reach the warm temperate reefs of South America soon.


The second pronounced characteristic of lionfish is their broad diet and general habitat preferences. Because of these factors, lionfish have the potential to affect the structure and function of many Atlantic marine communities — from the sea surface to depths exceeding 300 meters, and across habitats ranging from coral and hardbottom to artificial reefs, mangroves, and seagrass beds. For example, the high densities of lionfish observed in locations such as the Bahamas may be causing an abrupt change to the biodiversity and community structure of reef fish communities, and could constitute the most significant change since the beginning of industrialized fishing (Albins and Hixon 2011). 


Alarmingly, lionfish may trigger cascading impacts through their disruption of the food web. For example, the lionfish consumption of herbivorous fishes could reduce the functional role of herbivores in keeping algae in check, a process known to be important for the health of coral reefs. Lionfish may also compete for resources — principally food and space — with economically important species, such as snapper (Lutjanids) and grouper (Epinephelids). It is uncertain if stock-rebuilding efforts will be able to return reef fish stocks to pre-lionfish abundance levels.

Lionfish could also affect the recovery of species of concern, such as the Nassau grouper (Epinephelus striatus), Warsaw grouper (E. nigritus), and speckled hind (E. drummondhayi). These species are critically low in abundance and might not recover quickly under the additional predation mortality imposed by lionfish.

Lastly, it is the interaction of the lionfish invasion with existing reef stressors that poses the greatest concern. Coral reefs of the Atlantic are already highly stressed from bleaching events, climate change, ocean acidification, overfishing, and pollution. The additional stress of this invasive species could accelerate and compound the degradation of coral reef ecosystem health in profound and unexpected ways.


Local control efforts are critical for mitigating the effects of lionfish on key marine habitats. These efforts are invaluable for supporting other conservation initiatives, such as management of marine protected areas and fisheries stock rebuilding. The re-colonization of lionfish from remote and unmanaged habitats will continue to inflict constant stress on Atlantic marine communities. Until new technologies and approaches are developed for controlling lionfish populations, managers must be prepared for long-term intervention. 

Data type
Monitoring protocol
Education and outreach
Research and monitoring