Climate change

Island(er)s at the Helm awarded with funding from the NWO Caribbean Research programme

On January 7th Minister van Engelshoven of Education, Culture and Science of The Netherlands announced that the project Island(er)s at the Helm: Co-creating sustainable and inclusive solutions for social adaptation to climate challenges in the (Dutch) Caribbean is one of two projects awarded with funding from the NWO Caribbean Research programme.

A large part of the Island(er)s at the Helm group at the National Archaeological Museum Aruba. Fltr top: Liliane de Geus (UNESCO workgroup Bonaire), Antonio Carmona Báez (USM), Francio Guadeloupe (UvA, KITLV), Corinne Hofman (LU, KITLV), Ergün Erkoçu (UoC), Ellen van Bueren (TU Delft). Fltr bottom: Harold Kelly (NAMA), Menno Hoogland (KITLV), Sharelly Emanuelson (Uniarte), Tibisay Sankatsing Nava (KITLV)(photo: Tibisay Sankatsing Nava).

The Island(er)s at the Helm project is chaired by Dr. Francio Guadeloupe (University of Amsterdam/KITLV), with co-applicants Prof. dr. Corinne L. Hofman (Leiden University/KITLV), Dr. Antonio Carmona Báez (University of St. Martin), and Prof. dr. ir. Filomeno A. (Boey) Marchena (University of Curaçao).

Since the first occupation of the islands, hurricanes and the devastation of coastal areas have significant ecological and social implications for the (Dutch) Caribbean. These are deeply impacting the basic living conditions (water, food, shelter) and heritage of the island inhabitants. This requires immediate action! Island(er)s at the Helm brings together researchers and societal partners to combine technical, traditional, and contemporary knowledge practices to co-create sustainable and inclusive strategies for social adaptation to these climatic challenges. A trans-Atlantic academic platform will be developed fostering research-based education on climate challenges for the six islands. Moreover, a regional expertise center on climate challenges, where the Dutch Caribbean researchers can find employ, is one of the end objectives of this programme. This center will be jointly managed by the University of St. Martin, University of Curacao, University of Aruba (Dr. Eric Mijts of the SISSTEM project), and the Caribbean Netherlands Science Institute. These institutions have committed to working towards this integration by offering joint courses in cooperation with institutes in the region and the wider Kingdom of the Netherlands.

From 2 to 13 March 2020, a team of researchers and societal partners travelled to the six Dutch Caribbean islands to organize outreach seminars and bring together researchers and local stakeholders to discuss the initial ideas and set-up of the NWO programme Island(er)s at the Helm. The main objective of the seminars was to discuss the climate change challenges that face the Caribbean island(er)s; to define common goals of interest towards social adaptation to climate change; to broaden and consolidate the prospective network of partnerships; and to start off discussions to co-create questions and approaches to shape the full proposal. These conversations contributed to the final Island(er)s at the Helm programme.

One of many co-development meetings organized in March 2020, this one at St. John’s School in Saba. During these meetings, ideas were presented to, and discussed with, local stakeholders and community members in preparation of the full scientific proposal of Island(er)s at the Helm for NWO (photo: Menno Hoogland).

The emphasis within this NWO programme is on the structural strengthening of the knowledge system and the embedding of scientific research in the Caribbean part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. NWO wants to achieve this goal by means of two large multidisciplinary research programs that are carried out and anchored in the region itself. The research programs focus on issues of great social and scientific importance to the Caribbean region and promote the transfer of knowledge through education and outreach. Never before has NWO funded programs of this size in the Caribbean part of the Kingdom.

“This project is about NWO truly investing in research that benefits our islands. Climate change is real. We know this from Irma and the rise of the frequency of hurricanes in our region. We know this from the heavy rainfall and droughts on the ABC islands. We know this from the rise in earthquakes and now a volcano waking up in the wider Caribbean. There is absolutely no time to waste on cooperating Kingdom-wide, even if some of us rightly attend to the colonial past. That righteous attention must not deter us from recognizing that by paying their taxes, the hardworking Caribbean diaspora in the Netherlands have partially contributed to the funding of this programme”, said Guadeloupe, who also recognized the hard work of those who inside NWO pushed for a fair distribution of funds among kingdom partners (stmaartenagriculture.com).

 

Corinne Hofman, co-applicant and professor of Caribbean Archaeology at Leiden University and senior researcher at the KITLV: “It is fantastic to be part of this transdisciplinary programme, which will study social adaptation to climate challenges from a long-term perspective, bridging the past and the present. Culture and climate adaptation are inextricably and indispensably connected to each other and we will focus on how heritage can contribute to resolve societally relevant questions, in this case how to approach and adapt to climate challenges, thereby strengthening cultural identity and a sense of belonging. I am particularly looking forward to the collaborations in the trans-Atlantic academic platform. This platform is one of many ways in which stakeholders (GOs, NGOs, local communities, and researchers) across the Kingdom will connect, undoubtedly resulting in successful and sustainable embedding and implementation of the project’s results in local and regional education.”

Part of the Island(er)s at the Helm team working on incorporating feedback and ideas from the co-development meetings organized in March 2020 into the full scientific proposal of the project for NWO. Here, the team was at the University of Curaçao (photo: Ergün Erkoçu).

President of the University of Sint Martin and co-applicant of the project Antonio Carmona Báez also made public his remarks: “This is the most significant thing that has ever happened to USM, we can now become a full-fledged developmental university sponsoring research-based teaching that is essential to the sustainable progress of our Caribbean people. Together with other institutions of higher education in our region and our brothers and sisters in the diaspora, we can move forward by putting knowledge at the service of our islands. By co-creating solutions with historians, artists, archaeologists, anthropologists, urban engineers, farmers and students we can start to build that sustainable future looking inside and around us. No longer will research agendas be dictated from abroad and from now on the results of research that is conducted in our region will serve the people of the six Caribbean islands. This is about emancipation and empowerment.”, Carmona said (stmaartenagriculture.com).

 

Prof. dr. ir. Filomeno (Boey) Marchena, co-applicant and Head of the UNESCO Chair on Sustainable Water Technology and Management at the University of Curaçao: “This major research program is great news for the Caribbean. We are really looking forward to collaborate with the research team crossing the boundaries between the social sciences, humanities, technological sciences and the natural sciences. We can further strengthen the collaboration between the Caribbean islands and The Netherlands and focus on Caribbean-research and research-talents. This in co-development with GOs, NGOs, grassroots organizations, and local communities of the Dutch Leeward and Windward islands. Using innovative tools and practices in the critical areas of integrated water resource management, foodways, and architectural practices. These innovative tools and practices will contribute toward sustainable living that may reduce fossil-based energy use. Alternative designs and models of the water, food, shelter nexus (WFS-nexus) will be created by engineers who will be working with students and staff from the universities of The Kingdom. These designs and models will include the desires and needs of local populations, as well as mitigate the ideological reservations of decision makers on the islands regarding sustainable urban planning and design. It will therefore have big societal impact, like the improvement of life quality through creation of more livable communities and positive environmental impact”; a sustainable added value to our Caribbean communities.

 

Dr. Charissa Granger (University of the West Indies) says: “Island(er)s at the Helm reframes climate change research in the (Dutch-) Caribbean for the way it engages transdisciplinarity and especially the space it offers for thinking sustainability and knowledge through visual and performing arts. In so doing, this project shifts the axis of climate change studies to acknowledge the critical need for cultural practices. Such a research endeavor invites us to not only see, but feel; revealing an entirely new avenue for approaching water management, thinking of the water, food, and shelter-nexus, and making sense of the relationship between cultural heritage and the social adaptation of the island(er)s to climate challenges and catastrophes. The provocatively rich role aesthetics plays in a comprehensive understanding and awareness of climate challenges and ways to mitigate these throughout the (Dutch) Caribbean, moves us to consider and imagine other possibilities for responding to climate challenges, for thinking at the intersection of sustainability, heritage, and traditional knowledge practice. We are hereby invited to stretch our imagination to grapple with the audacious resources, available to us within the Caribbean, with the island(er)s at the helm.”

For questions, please contact Emma de Mooij (demooij@kitlv.nl).

 

Article published in BioNews 42

Date
2021
Data type
Media
Theme
Education and outreach
Research and monitoring
Geographic location
Aruba
Bonaire
Curacao
Saba
Saba bank
St. Eustatius
St. Maarten
Author

Healthier Mangrove Key in Managing Our Carbon Footprint

Healthy mangroves act as carbon sinks, storing a variety of greenhouse gases.  As mangroves degrade this ability is lost, but to what extend is still unknown. A 2019 study of Bonaire’s mangroves worked to analyze the differences between intact and degraded mangroves’ ability to store carbon. This work proved that preserving healthy wetlands is crucial in the fight against climate change.

Greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4), play an important role in accelerating global warming, worsening the conditions of climate change. When in balance, there are environmental systems in place which can trap greenhouse gases and allow an equilibrium to be reached.  Wetlands serve as a prime example of areas where productive plant communities are capable of storing and using large amounts of carbon through decomposition and photosynthesis.

Blue Carbon

Carbon which is stored within coastal environments has become known as “blue carbon” and could become key in building resilience against climate change moving forward. Of these blue carbon areas, mangroves are some of the most carbon-rich ecosystems on earth.  Through their dense leaf canopies and complex root systems, it is estimated that they are able to store carbon at a rate of 50 times higher thantropical rainforests.

Unfortunately, these areas are under threat.  Recent estimates have found that nearly one-third of these forests have been removed due to coastal development and land conversion.  In the Caribbean alone, nearly 24% of mangrove area was lost between 1980 and 2005.  When these areas are destroyed, not only do we lose the benefits of future carbon storage, but we begin adding carbon to the atmosphere that had been previously trapped in the sediment.

Scientists are just beginning to understand the importance of these ecosystems.  New policies are being drafted to advocate for these areas as important carbon sinks and policymakers are working to imbed these concepts into future climate change mitigation strategies.  Although the differences between healthy and clear-cut mangrove forests have already been studied, there is still a lack of information concerning forests which slowly degrade.  This slow degradation is generally the result of deteriorating environmental conditions, which causes trees to gradually die off.  As climate conditions continue to harshen, it can be expected that the remaining mangrove forests could see an increase in gradual die off, so understanding how this impacts their ability to function as a carbon sink will become critical.

Lac Bay

This is the case on Bonaire, where the mangrove forests around Lac Bay have been in gradual decline for decades.  A recent study conducted by the University of Bremen and the Leibniz Center for Marine Tropical Research and STINAPA Bonaire worked to understand these differences by quantifying the carbon sink capabilities of healthy and gradually degrading mangrove areas.

The area which was studied experience high sediment run off, as overgrazing and urban development have removed ground vegetation which would normally minimized erosion.  This high sediment run off has caused infilling within the mangrove forest, minimizing water circulation and creating areas of stagnant and hypersaline waters.  These conditions have led to the gradual die back of mangroves.  The presence of healthy and degraded mangroves within the same forest made Bonaire the perfect location to study the differences in these environments to better understand the carbon dynamics of these areas.

The Study

Measurements were taken between January and March of 2019.  17 plots of intact mangroves and 15 plots of degraded mangroves were selected.  In the end, a striking difference was found between these two areas.  Healthy, intact mangroves were seen to have larger amounts of both above ground (leaves, branches, trunks) and below ground (roots, sediment) biomass than those in degraded areas.  Degraded areas had very little aboveground biomass, resulting in less photosynthesis, less sedimentation and more erosion, chemical weathering and higher rates of decomposition within the sediment.  This complete loss of aboveground carbon capture and erosion of sediment meant that these areas could no longer be considered a carbon sink, but in fact act more as a carbon source, allowing previously trapped carbon to reenter the atmosphere or neighboring waters.

The Future of Mangroves

Interestingly, this study found that carbon left the slowly degrading areas slower than in forests where mangroves were intentionally cleared.  This could be important for future climate change mitigation plans as scientists believe that climate change will increase aridity in parts of the Caribbean, Central and South America and South Asia altering hydrology and causing seasonal hypersalinity which will lead to the gradual die off of large amounts of remaining forests. Understanding these differences will be key in forecasting the ability for natural areas to serve as carbon sinks in the future. This study proved that slowly degrading mangroves are no longer functioning as carbon sinks and efforts must be made to keep the remaining forests intact and healthy if we hope to find more natural solutions to minimizing our carbon footprint.

https://www.dcbd.nl/document/impacts-wetland-dieback-carbon-dynamics-com...

 

Article publish in Bionews 41

Date
2021
Data type
Media
Theme
Education and outreach
Research and monitoring
Geographic location
Bonaire

Brown Tides: Assessing the Past, Present, & Future State of Sargassum in Aruba Through a Mixed Methods Approach

ABSTRACT:

In the last decade, Caribbean shores have been inundated with a floating seaweed known as Sargassum. In large amounts, Sargassum threatens biodiversity by suffocating nearshore ecosystems and decreases tourism levels due to its nauseating smell, putting small island environments and economies at risk. With little to no research conducted on the monitoring and cleanup opportunities of Sargassum in Aruba, I aimed to fill that gap with this thesis by identifying susceptible influx areas and potential impacts. In collecting both quantitative data using geographic information systems (GIS) and Sargassum specific monitoring software, as well as qualitative data through interviews, my research has explored the potential social, economic, and environmental consequences or opportunities that Aruba may face. I used this data to further visualize the spatial distribution and impacts of Sargassum such that my research findings could be applied within the larger Caribbean context

Date
2022
Data type
Research report
Theme
Research and monitoring
Document
Geographic location
Aruba

De belofte van ‘blue carbon’: van koolstoftunnelvisie naar donutvisie

Tijdschrift Milieu

Volgens het laatste IPCC-rappor t zijn de effecten van klimaatverandering onomkeer-  baar en zullen we moeten inzetten op adaptatie. Maar dit betekent niet dat we de handdoek in de ring kunnen gooien voor de 1,5 gradensamenleving. Integendeel: des te urgenter is het om het CO2-overschot uit de atmosfeer te ver wijderen. Kust- en oceaansystemen bieden hier voor een omvangrijk potentieel, maar dat is nog amper bekend. Hoe bieden we deze ‘blue carbon’ oplossingen het podium dat ze verdienen?

Date
2022
Data type
Media
Theme
Education and outreach
Research and monitoring
Geographic location
Bonaire
Author

Klimaat Actieplan voor het Nederlands Caribisch Gebied

Introductie

De eerste effecten van de klimaatcrisis zijn nu al zichtbaar in het Caribische gebied en de verwachting is dat dit in de komende jaren exponentieel zal toenemen. In het onlangs verschenen zesde assessment rapport van het Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), waarschuwen deskundigen dat we nog maar tien jaar de tijd hebben om de ergste klimaateffecten af te wenden. Dit vereist echter daadkrachtige keuzes, zowel op het vlak van adaptatie- als mitigatiestrategieën. De eilanden in het Caribisch deel van het Koninkrijk zijn bijzonder kwetsbaar voor de gevolgen van klimaatverandering. Het dagelijks leven en de meeste economische activiteiten spelen zich af aan de kust. De unieke natuur van het gebied staat onder druk door menselijke activiteiten. De kwetsbaarheid wordt nog versterkt door het feit dat, vanwege het kleine oppervlak van het eiland en de beperkte menselijke capaciteit, de veerkracht om te herstellen van rampzalige gebeurtenissen laag is. De parken verenigd in de Dutch Caribbean Nature Alliance (DCNA) ervaren als beschermers van de natuur op de Nederlands Caribische eilanden aan den lijve hoe het veranderende klimaat de eilanden nu al beïnvloedt.

 

Also available in English: https://www.dcbd.nl/document/dutch-caribbean-climate-action-plan

Date
2022
Data type
Media
Theme
Governance
Education and outreach
Geographic location
Aruba
Bonaire
Curacao
Saba
Saba bank
St. Eustatius
St. Maarten
Author

Dutch Caribbean Climate Action Plan

Introduction

Caribbean islands are at the forefront of the climate crisis, with effects already starting to become noticeable in the region. Experts have warned, including in the recently released IPCC Sixth Assessment Report, that we have just ten years left to avert the worst climate impacts but that this will require decisive action, both in terms of adaptation and mitigation strategies. The Dutch Caribbean islands are particularly vulnerable to climate change impacts. People’s lives and livelihoods as well as most economic activities are located near coastal areas while the region’s unique nature is already under pressure from human impacts. This is compounded by the fact that, due to the island’s small geographic area and limited human capacity, the resilience to recover from disastrous events is low. As stewards of nature in the Dutch Caribbean the parks united in the DCNA see first hand how the changing climate is already affecting the islands.

 

Also available in Dutch: https://www.dcbd.nl/document/klimaat-actieplan-voor-het-nederlands-carib...

 

Date
2022
Data type
Media
Theme
Governance
Education and outreach
Geographic location
Aruba
Bonaire
Curacao
Saba
Saba bank
St. Eustatius
St. Maarten
Author

Future of Bonaire: Greenpeace review on the impacts of climate change on the Dutch Caribbean island Bonaire

Bonaire or Boneiru, as it is known in Papiamentu, is a Dutch Caribbean island. An island full of heritage, gorgeous sunset views and a place that thousands of people call home.

Bonaire is located in the Leeward Antilles in the Caribbean Sea, 80 kilometers off the coast of Venezuela. The distance between Bonaire and Amsterdam, the capital city of the Netherlands, is roughly 7800 kilometers. Bonaire is 288 square kilometers. If you have never been to Bonaire, imagine an island half the size of the Dutch island of Terschelling or the same size as Ameland.

However, a lot more people live on Bonaire. According to CBS, in 2022, there were almost 23,000 people living on Bonaire1 - compared to 4,000 on Ameland. This is growing rapidly because Bonaire is becoming increasingly more popular, with tourists and people from the Dutch mainland and the United States moving to the island. When you drive around Bonaire, you experience this immediately. There are lots of construction sites and the roads are busy. Everywhere you go, you see more houses, hotels and resorts being built.

There are two cities on Bonaire. Kralendijk, which is the capital city, and the village of Rincón. The essential infrastructure of the Island is there to not only support the more than 20,000 people living on the island, but also to accommodate all the tourists coming to the island and enable them to enjoy the beautiful nature of Bonaire. As well as the Flamingo Airport in Kralendijk, there is a large pier that allows cargo ships and cruise ships to dock. The island also has its own waste processing, and energy and water infrastructure. A lot is taking place on this small island.

Nowadays, tourism is a huge part of Bonaire’s economy, whereas in the past salt production was elemental to the island. This is a big part of Bonaire’s colonial history, and when slavery was prohibited, the salt mining was too. However, the production in the salt pans was started back up again in 1966, when it was sold to an American company. Currently, the salt industry is in the hands of Cargill, a Canadian Company. In 2016, over 40 people were working for Cargill on Bonaire2 .

From 1954 until 2010, Bonaire was part of the Netherlands Antilles, a country in the Kingdom of the Netherlands. In 2010, the Netherlands Antilles were dissolved. Bonaire, together with the islands Saba and Sint Eustatius, became special municipalities of the Netherlands. Since then, the national government of Bonaire has been the Dutch government in the Hague. As a special municipality, there are a number of things that make Bonaire different from an ordinary municipality, let’s say like Volendam. The most obvious one is that Bonaire, Saba and Sint Eustatius, nowadays referred to as the Caribbean Netherlands, do not belong to one of the twelve Dutch provinces or to one of the socalled waterschappen, the regional authorities in the Netherlands that are in charge of water management.

Even though there might be differences in the way Bonaire, Saba and Sint Eustatius are governed, the inhabitants of the three islands have the same human rights as all Dutch citizens. The Dutch government needs to guarantee and protect, for example, Bonairians’ right to life and family life. These rights are defined by the European Convention on Human Rights3 .

Climate change is a danger to human rights all over the world. This begs the question: is the Dutch government taking sufficient action to prevent the worst impacts of climate change on the Caribbean Netherlands? And does it give equal protection from the impacts of global warming to the citizens of the Caribbean Netherlands as it does to the citizens of the European Netherlands?

Date
2022
Data type
Research report
Theme
Governance
Education and outreach
Research and monitoring
Geographic location
Bonaire
Author

Towards better climate change adaptation governance in Curaçao and Bonaire

Abstract

This study addresses the governance around climate change policies in two small islands in the Southern Caribbean. Like many other small islands across the world it is becoming increasingly clear that they are the most vulnerable to the effects of climate change like the increase in sea level rise, longer dry periods, loss of biodiversity, more extreme weather events (flooding and hurricanes) and increased fresh water demands (IPCC, 2014). To address such issues climate change adaptation policies will be necessary. The geographical focus of this research is the Southern Caribbean, specifically the islands of Curaçao and Bonaire. This study investigated what climate change adaptation policies are in place and could the policies be characterized as good governance? Policy documents were studied, and 22 semi-structured interviews were held with policy-makers and NGOs. First, a literature review of the concept of good governance was carried out to develop an analytical framework with principles and corresponding indicators for good governance. Second, the framework was applied to assess good governance in key climate policy documents of both islands. And third, the indicators of the framework were also used in the interviews with governmental stakeholders and NGOs, to assess from their perspectives good governance in climate policies. Curaçao and Bonaire have different jurisdictions, respectively an autonomous country in the Kingdom of the Netherlands and a Dutch municipality. Therefore, from a governance perspective it seemed interesting to compare both islands whether one jurisdiction is doing better than the other. The aims of the research are to reduce the knowledge gap on climate change adaptation in the Southern Caribbean, to develop a good governance framework, to assess good governance in climate change adaptation policies on both islands and to compare them. The last aim is what recommendations of enhancing good governance practices could be given. Results are that the developed analytical framework worked rather well and that the governance principles Transparency, Inclusiveness and Connectivity are relatively better in place than Accountability and Government Effectiveness. There are some differences between the islands but not striking.

Date
2021
Data type
Research report
Theme
Education and outreach
Research and monitoring
Geographic location
Bonaire
Curacao

Future Caribbean Climates in a World of Rising Temperatures: The 1.5 vs 2.0 Dilemma

A 10-member ensemble from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) is used to analyse the Caribbean’s future climate when mean global surface air temperatures are 1.5 °C, 2.0 °C and 2.5 °C above pre-industrial (1861-1900) values. The global warming targets are attained by the 2030s, 2050s, and 2070s respectively for RCP 4.5. The Caribbean on average exhibits smaller mean surface air temperature increases than the globe, although there are parts of the region that are always warmer than the global warming targets. In comparison to the present (using a 1971-2000 baseline), the Caribbean domain is 0.5 °C to 1.5 °C warmer at the 1.5 °C target, 5-10% wetter except for the northeast and southeast Caribbean which are drier, and experiences increases in annual warm spells of more than 100 days. At the 2.0 °C target, there is additional warming by 0.2 °C-1.0 °C, a further extension of warm spells by up to 70 days, a shift to a predominantly drier region (5-15% less than present-day), and a greater occurrence of droughts. The climate patterns at 2.5 °C indicate an intensification of the changes seen at 2.0 °C. The shift in the rainfall pattern between 1.5 °C (wet) and 2.0 °C (dry) for parts of the domain has implications for regional adaptation pursuits. The results provide some justification for the lobby by the Caribbean Community and Small Island Developing States to limit global warming to 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels, as embodied in the slogan “1.5 to Stay Alive”.

Date
2018
Data type
Scientific article
Theme
Research and monitoring

Harmful invasive alien species (IAS) in the Caribbean Netherlands

Following climate change, IAS are recognised as the second-most serious long-term threat to island ecology, worldwide. Of all IAS issues, by far the most serious is the problem of roaming livestock. On most islands this concerns the eubiquitous domestic goat. 

In addition to major inventories of invasive species (see the first 4 reports below) and the development of a joint strategy, as part of the Wageningen BO research program, IMARES has also led the way to several pilot-scale interventions, in close cooperation with island partners. Current studies include work to document the positive effect of feral cat control on survival of endangered ground-nesting seabirds in Saba, control and eradication of the Giant African Landsnail on Statia and control of goat grazing inside the Washington Slagbaai park in Bonaire. Within the European Netherlands, IAS are also recognized as a key scourge to both nature and economy and in 2015 stringent new legislation was implemented not only in the Netherlands, but throughout the EU. See below, for a full listing of IMARES recent work in this area of concern.

The problem of roaming livestock is particularly acute in the Caribbean Netherlands. It is a major impediment to agricultural development and nature conservation on St. Eustatius, as it also typically is on other islands in the region. In support of a government-led culling program, we here conducted a baseline study of livestock abundance and distribution on the island in the final quarter of 2013. In doing so we provide the first quantitative assessment of livestock densities ever in the Dutch Caribbean.

Date
2016
Data type
Other resources
Theme
Education and outreach
Research and monitoring
Geographic location
Aruba
Bonaire
Curacao
Saba
Saba bank
St. Eustatius
St. Maarten
Author