ABSTRACT: Corals harbor a complex suite of beneficial microbial symbionts. Shuffling the composition of these symbionts could, in theory, help the host withstand rapidly emerging or geographically varying stressors without requiring genetic change to the coral itself. The relative impact of host qualities on microbiome (bacteria) composition should provide insight into the extent that shifting microbial symbionts can play in resilience to environmental disturbance on reefs. We sought to assess the differences in microbiome composition across a large spatial scale (between Puerto Rico and Bonaire; >700 km apart) and in response to localized anthropogenic impacts in 2 co-occurring Caribbean soft corals (Eunicea flexuosa and Gorgonia ventalina) with well-documented differing degrees of population genetic differentiation. Host species was the strongest determinant of microbiome composition, with between-hosts distinction due largely to differences in the abundant genera Endozoicomonas and Mycoplasma. Interestingly, the microbiome of the more genetically subdivided G. ventalina showed stronger differentiation between islands and in response to local anthropogenic impacts than the less subdivided E. flexuosa. For both hosts, anthropogenic impacts on microbiome composition were stronger in Bonaire. Again, Endozoicomonas was responsible for much of the differentiation between and within islands and included host- and island-specific sequence variants. The level of intra-species microbiome variation mirrored the known geographic differentiation of their hosts, a trend that is consistent in the literature for 8 other coral species. Thus, while potentially adaptive bacteria may shuffle in response to environmental changes, our findings suggest that most changes to microbiomes are likely constrained by host genetics.
Marine Ecology Progress Series (MEPS)
Juvenile queen conch are primarily associated with native seagrass such as Thalassia testudinum in large parts of their range in the Caribbean and the southern Gulf of Mexico. Here, a number of non-native seagrass species have been introduced including Halophila stipulacea, which is natural to the Red Sea and the Indo-Pacific. In the Caribbean, H. stipulacea often creates dense continuous mats with little or no sediment exposed, compared to native seagrass, which grows much less dense. We examined the diet and growth of juvenile conch in both native, mixed, and invasive seagrass beds using stable isotope analysis and an in situ growth enclosure experiment. Organic material in the sediment (i.e. benthic diatoms and particulate organic matter) was found to be the most important source of carbon and nitrogen for juvenile queen conch in all 3 habitats investigated, and there was a significantly higher probability of positive growth in the native seagrass compared to the invasive seagrass. Due to the importance of the organic material in the sediment as a source of nutrition for juvenile conch, limited access to the sediment in the invasive seagrass can potentially cause inadequate nutritional conditions to sustain high growth rates. Thus, it is likely that there is a negative effect on juvenile queen conch growth currently inhabiting invasive seagrass beds, compared to native seagrass beds, when other potential sources of nutrition are not available.
ABSTRACT: Effectiveness of a marine protected area (MPA) in supporting fisheries productivity depends upon replenishment patterns, both in supplying recruits to surrounding fished areas and having a sustainable spawning stock in the MPA. Surveys for queen conch Strombus gigas were made in 2011 at 2 locations in the Exuma Cays, The Bahamas, for direct comparison with surveys conducted during the early 1990s at Warderick Wells (WW) near the center of the Exuma Cays Land and Sea Park (ECLSP) and at a fished site near Lee Stocking Island (LSI). There was no change in adult conch density and abundance in the shallow bank environment at LSI where numbers were already low in 1991, but numbers declined 91% in the deeper shelf waters. At WW, the adult population declined 69% on the bank and 6% on the island shelf. Unlike observations made in the 1990s, queen conch reproductive behavior near LSI is now rare. Average age of adult conch (indicated by shell thickness) at LSI decreased significantly during the 20 yr period between surveys, while average age increased at WW and juvenile abundance decreased. These results show that the LSI population is being overfished and the WW population is senescing because of low recruitment. In 2011, the ECLSP continued to be an important source of larvae for down- stream populations because of abundant spawners in the shelf environment. However, it is clear that the reserve is not self-sustaining for queen conch, and sustainable fishing in the Exuma Cays will depend upon a network of MPAs along with other management measures to reduce fishing mortality.
ABSTRACT: There is increasing recognition that habitats should be managed as part of fisheries management. It is generally assumed that amount of suitable habitat is linked to production of de- mersal species and that maps of bottom type will provide the information needed to conserve essen- tial habitats. In this review, a synthesis of nursery habitat is made for Strombus gigas (queen conch), a large, economically important gastropod in the Caribbean region. Juveniles occur on a variety of bottom types over their geographic range. In the Bahamas, nurseries occur in specific locations within large, beds of seagrass, while obvious characteristics of the benthic environment such as seagrass density, depth and sediment type are not good predictors of suitable habitat. Rather, nurseries persist where competent larvae are concentrated by tidal circulation and where settlement occurs selec- tively. Nursery locations provide for high juvenile growth resulting from macroalgal production not evident in maps of algal biomass, and they provide for low mortality compared with seemingly simi- lar surroundings. Therefore, critical habitats for queen conch juveniles are determined by the inter- section of habitat features and ecological processes that combine to yield high rates of recruitment and survivorship. While maps of bottom type are a good beginning for habitat management, they can be traps without good knowledge of ecological processes. A demersal species can occupy different substrata over its geographic range, different life stages often depend upon different bottom types, and specific locations can be more important than particular habitat forms. Habitat management must be designed to conserve habitat function and not just form. Implicit in the concept of ‘essential habitat’ is the fact that expendable habitat exists, and we need to prevent losses of working habitat because of inadequate protection, restoration or mitigation. Key nurseries may represent distinctive or even anomalous conditions.
The shoot demography and rhizome growth of Syringodium filiforme Kutz. and Halodule wrightii Aschers. were studied, based on plant dating techniques, to account for their role as pioneer in the succession sequence of Canbbean seagrasses. Results demonstrated that these spe- cies are able to develop dense meadows, supporting bio- masses in excess of 500 g DW m" They produced more than 2000 g DW m-2yr-' due to their high leaf (5.0to 8 5 yr.') and rhizome (20 to 3.3 yr-') turnover. Rhizome growth and branch~ngrates were very high, allowing these seagrasses to rapidly occupy the space they colonise. The rapid rhizome turnover involved, however, a high shoot mortality rate and low 11fe expectancy (average shoot life expectancy 100 to 180d).This implies that, while these pioneer species are able to rapidly occupy the space they colonise, their established shoots cannot occupy that space for as long as the more long- lived species Thalassia testudinum. We suggest, therefore. that the role of seagrass species as pioneer or climax species is independent of their capacity to support dense, productive populations, and is closely related to shoot longevity and rhi- zome turnover.
Various species of aquatic animals have complex life cycles and utilize different habitats during consecutive phases of their life cycles. For example, many marine fish species occupy different habitat types during juvenile and adult life stages. Juveniles of some species recruit to inshore nursery habitats such as mangroves and seagrass beds, whereas large adults tend to dominate coral reefs. The mechanisms underlying apparent cross-habitat distribution patterns by life stage remain uncertain for many species. Here, we investigated potential mechanisms that produce a 5-phase, and possibly even a 6-phase life cycle pattern in a common Caribbean coral reef fish species Haemulon flavolineatum (French grunt) across multiple coastal habitats. At each discrete life stage, individuals were faced with important and stage-specific ecological trade-offs that could significantly augment fitness. Pelagic larvae settled on rubble habitats near bay entrances where they reached an optimum between predation risk (survival) and food abundance (growth). Individuals subsequently shifted to seagrass beds, likely as a result of increased food resources, followed by a shift to mangroves as predation refugia. Before the uni-directional movement between bays and coral reefs, some fishes shifted from mangroves to boulder/notch habitats. Likely, this habitat serves as an intermediate stop before their final shift to the coral reef, where they reach maturity and reproduce. This study reveals ecological linkages and flows among habitat types that are of direct conservation importance to these ecosystems. Furthermore, the identification of mechanisms that give rise to cross-habitat distribution patterns of marine fishes in general might lead to enhanced conservation management solutions to declines in fisheries at larger scales.
Connectivity is essential for ecosystem functioning, and in particular for the popula- tion dynamics of species that use different habitats during consecutive life stages. Mangrove and seagrass habitats serve to replenish populations of a range of species that live on coral reefs, but we know little about the fate of these early stages and the spatial scale at which adult populations benefit from this enhancement effect. We examined densities of 12 ecologically important Carib- bean fish species across 3 nursery-dependency categories (high, low, none). We tested the hypo- theses that for nursery species, (1) densities and (2) biomass in the adult habitat decrease with dis- tance from nurseries as the enhancement effect is progressively diluted, and (3) densities in the adult habitat are positively correlated with total juvenile abundance in nurseries. Reef density and biomass of the high- and low-dependence species declined rapidly within ~4 km from nurseries, while at a distance of ~14 km densities of most species were close to zero. These patterns were not confounded by local habitat complexity. Density and biomass of the no-dependence species re- mained unchanged with distance. Total abundance of juvenile fishes in nurseries was a good pre- dictor of total adult abundance on adjacent reefs for the high-dependence species. Our results demonstrate that for several species, enhancement of adult reef populations by mangrove and seagrass nurseries is highly localized (less than ~4 km) in terms of abundance and biomass, and the magnitude of this enhancement is highly correlated with juvenile population abundances within the nursery habitats.
Widespread use of minimally selective fish traps has contributed to the overfishing of Caribbean coral reefs. Traps typically target high-value fish such as groupers (Serranidae and Epinephelidae) and snappers (Lutjanidae), but they also have high bycatch of ecologically important herbivores (parrotfish (Scaridae) and surgeonfish (Acanthuridae)) and non-target species. One strategy for reducing this bycatch is to retrofit traps with rectangular escape gaps that allow juveniles and narrow-bodied species to escape; yet the effectiveness of these gaps has not been thoroughly tested. On the shallow reefs of Curaçao, Netherlands Antilles, I compared the catch of traditional Antillean chevron traps (the control) to the catch of traps with short escape gaps (20 × 2.5 cm), traps with tall escape gaps (40 × 2.5 cm), and traps with a panel of large aperture mesh. With data from 190 24-h trap sets, the mean number of fish caught was 11.84 in control traps, 4.88 in short gap traps, 4.43 in tall gap traps, and 0.34 in large mesh traps. Compared to controls, traps with short or tall gaps caught significantly fewer bycatch fish (–74 and –80% respectively), key herbivores (–58 and –50% respectively), and butterflyfish (Chaetodontidae; –90 and –98% respectively). The mean length of captured fish was significantly greater in gap traps because juveniles were able to escape via the gaps. Escape gaps reduce neither the catch of high-value fish, nor the total market value of the catch. Therefore, using escape gaps could make trap fishing more sustainable without reducing fishermen’s revenues.
Oil spills cause damage to marine wildlife that lasts well past their immediate aftermath. Marine offspring that must settle and metamorphose to reach adulthood may be particularly prone to harm if the legacy of oil exposure interrupts later transitions across life stages. Following an oil spill on Curaçao, we found that oil-contaminated seawater reduced settlement of 2 coral species by 85% and 40% after exposure had ended. The effect of contamination on settlement was more severe than any direct or latent effects on survival. Therefore, oil exposure reduces the ability of corals to transition to their adult life stage, even after they move away from oil contamination. This interruption of the life cycle likely has severe consequences for recruitment success in these foundational and threatened organisms. Latent, sublethal, and behavioral effects on marine organisms—as shown in this study—are not commonly considered during oil-spill impact assessments, increasing the likelihood that harm to marine species goes underestimated or unmeasured.
The rainbow parrotfish Scarus guacamaia has an obligate dependence on man- groves at juvenile stages, and, as the largest herbivorous fish in the Caribbean region, its distribution has important implications for coral reefs. The effect of connectivity with mangroves on relative density, biomass and size of S. guacamaia was assessed from over 65 km of visual sur- veys from Bonaire, Caribbean Netherlands. In addition, an individual-based, age-structured, mechanistic model (IBM) was developed to explain dispersal patterns from nurseries for S. guaca- maia. In the IBM, mortality was constant, growth was determined by a von Bertalanffy growth equation, and movement was modeled through a random walk process. Using the IBM, simula- tions were run to generate patterns of density, biomass, and size with distance from nurseries. Rainbow parrotfish were observed as far as 42 km away from the nearest mangroves on Bonaire. Relative density and biomass showed significant exponential declines with distance from the pri- mary mangrove nursery and were significantly higher in high versus low complexity non-man- grove habitats. Mean size increased linearly with distance (r2 = 0.74), reflecting an absence of smaller individuals with greater distance. These results were closely mirrored by the simulation study: density and biomass declined exponentially with distance from nurseries, and size and age increased following saturating functions. The results suggest that mangroves may have the poten- tial to supply individuals much further than previously thought. Both the empirical and simulation studies reaffirm calls to prioritise protection of reef habitats close to nurseries as well as the nurseries themselves.