Somatic growth dynamics of West Atlantic hawksbill sea turtles: a spatio-temporal perspective
Somatic growth dynamics are an integrated response to environmental conditions. Hawksbill sea turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) are long-lived, major consumers in coral reef habitats that move over broad geographic areas (hundreds to thousands of kilometers). We evaluated spatio-temporal e ects on hawksbill growth dynamics over a 33-yr period and 24 study sites throughout the West Atlantic and ex- plored relationships between growth dynamics and climate indices. We compiled the largest ever data set on somatic growth rates for hawksbills – 3541 growth increments from 1980 to 2013. Using generalized addi- tive mixed model analyses, we evaluated 10 covariates, including spatial and temporal variation, that could a ect growth rates. Growth rates throughout the region responded similarly over space and time. The lack of a spatial e ect or spatio-temporal interaction and the very strong temporal e ect reveal that growth rates in West Atlantic hawksbills are likely driven by region-wide forces. Between 1997 and 2013, mean growth rates declined signi cantly and steadily by 18%. Regional climate indices have signi cant relationships with annual growth rates with 0- or 1-yr lags: positive with the Multivariate El Niño Southern Oscillation Index (correlation = 0.99) and negative with Caribbean sea surface temperature (correlation = −0.85). Declines in growth rates between 1997 and 2013 throughout the West Atlantic most likely resulted from warming waters through indirect negative e ects on foraging resources of hawksbills. These climatic in uences are complex. With increasing temperatures, trajectories of decline of coral cover and availability in reef habitats of major prey species of hawksbills are not parallel. Knowledge of how choice of foraging habitats, prey selection, and prey abundance are a ected by warming water temperatures is needed to understand how climate change will a ect productivity of consumers that live in association with coral reefs.