Preliminary inventory of key terrestrial nature values of Bonaire
A preliminary inventory is given of key terrestrial nature values of Bonaire in order to determine their occurrence in relation to areas designated as “nature” and “open landscape”, according to the Spatial development plan of Bonaire. This was based on a literature study and supplemented by expert advice.
In 2010 a spatial development plan was written in order to determine the spatial policy and regulation for the future development of Bonaire. The island was partitioned into areas for different uses such as agriculture and recreation. Two specific designations are “nature” and “open landscape”. The occurrence of nature values within these areas remained unclear. This makes implementation of protective measures based on international treaties and island legislation problematic. An inventory of the occurrence of these values should help facilitate more effective implementation of these protective measures. In the present study key nature values are determined, both in terms of protected species and essential habitat (e.g. caves).
From the literature study it became apparent that data on the occurrence of most of the priority species of flora and fauna, is limited and scattered, especially with respect to “open landscape” and “nature” outside parks. Therefore, only a preliminary inventory is provided showing the general distribution of nature values across the entire island, as linked to various habitat types. An exact distribution of the different nature values was not possible at this time, but extrapolation from areas of known occurrence into other areas of similar habitat type was used to show the occurrence of overlapping distributions of nature values within the designated areas of “nature” and “open landscape”. The number of overlapping distributions of nature values may contribute to setting conservation priorities.
From the results it can be concluded that the areas of “open landscape” and “nature” (outside the national parks) seem to harbour unique and critical nature values. These areas are not actively managed or protected as national parks. The “open landscape” of Bolivia possibly harbours a few rare plant species (unique), an important population of critical key columnar cacti and at least two columnar cactus-pollinating bat species. The “open landscape” of Washikemba/Bakuna harbours key mangrove species that only have another main location at Lac Bay (national park). The “nature” area of Terrace Landscape Middle Bonaire seems to harbour a concentration of unique (e.g. Tillandsia balbisiana) and rare plant species (e.g. Krugiodendron ferreum etc.) and four bat species. The same is the case for Lima (e.g. Sabal palm, Maytenus versluysii and three bat species) while in Southern Bonaire key mangrove species also still occur. Table 1 shows which nature values are found or expected to occur within each “open landscape” and “nature” (outside national parks) area.
It can be concluded that outside the current parks, the main regions that harbour a concentration of key nature values are Terrace Landscape Middle Bonaire/Sta. Barbara, Bolivia, Washikemba/Bakuna and Lima. Terrace Landscape Middle Bonaire is designated as “nature” area, while Washikemba/Bakuna and Bolivia are in part designated as “open landscape”. Lima has both “nature” and “open landscape” designations. Sta. Barbara is designated for other uses, but the present review shows that the occurrence of several significant nature values is likely within this area.
Additionally, based on the preliminary inventory, the combination of apparent concentrations of rare plants, occurrence of critical bat species and the high probability of corridor values show that the areas of Terrace Landscape Middle Bonaire/Sta. Barbara and Lima are important areas concerning conservation and further research. The areas of Bolivia and Washikemba/Bakuna follow closely.
To be able to implement the necessary protective measures within these areas, it is recommended that more extensive research through fieldwork is done, in order to obtain a complete inventory of the different nature values found on Bonaire, not only in the areas of “nature” and “open landscape” but also in areas with other designations. Additionally, it is recommended to assess the list of vulnerable and endangered species (‘Informatieblad beschermde dier- en plantensoorten Bonaire’) as certain species that may be of importance to Bonaire are not included.
When executing a complete and extensive inventory of Bonaire it would be of value to also determine the ecological conditions needed for the different species to survive. Based on the ecological conditions necessary for their life functions, it may be possible to pinpoint those areas of main ecological importance per species. A complete inventory of the nature values on the island can contribute to better management of nature values (e.g. determining the distribution of caves and the distribution, health status and diversity of keystone cacti species for better management of bat populations). It is also recommended to determine areas with high potential for the occurrence of rare or relict species and which areas harbour high corridor values.
For future research it is recommended to execute a complete and extensive inventory of Bonaire, through fieldwork, in order to implement the necessary protective measures to ensure the conservation of these nature values. The present study shows that the areas of WNSP/Brasil, Terrace Landscape Middle Bonaire, Lima and Bolivia may be of priority as these areas seem to harbour a concentration of unique and critical plants.
Present studies shows that key nature values may occur in areas with a different designation than “nature” or “open landscape”. For future research it is recommended not to limit inventory research to the areas of “nature” and “open landscape”, but to include other areas with different designations.
In the present study the nature values chosen were based on the list of vulnerable and endangered species (Informatieblad beschermde dier- en plantensoorten Bonaire). During the study several species were added based on expert knowledge. The list used therefore seems to be limited. For future research it is recommended to assess if there are other nature values that are important to Bonaire that should be included on the list (e.g. Clusia sp, Ammodramus savannarum).
A complete inventory of the nature values on the island can contribute to the better management of nature values. A good example is the management of Bonaire’s bat population. In order to define the priority areas to maintain for the management of the different bats on Bonaire it is essential to obtain a detailed inventory of the different caves that these species use as habitat.
Additionally for the nectar-feeding bats it is crucial to map the occurrence of the different candle cacti on which they feed. The nectar-feeding bats are the critical pollinators of the three candle cacti (Petit, 2001). As already mentioned these cacti are key species on the island as they provide food for several species of animals during the dry season, when many other plant species are non-productive (Petit, 2001). Research on the distribution, health status and diversity of candle cacti on Bonaire is recommended in order to pinpoint priority areas for nectar- feeding bats. The cactus populations are threatened severely by feral livestock (goats, donkeys) which remove the bark of the mature trees, thereby threatening the food supply for frugivores and nectarivores. From our analysis open land areas of Bolivia would seem to possess large cactus populations of vital interest to conservation of endangered bird species on an island-wide scale.
When executing a complete and extensive inventory of Bonaire it would be of value to determine the ecological conditions and various habitats needed for the different species to survive. Based on the ecological conditions necessary for their life functions it may be possible to pinpoint those areas of principal ecological importance per species.
It is necessary to identify those areas with a high potential for the concentration of nature values rare species or relict vegetation species in order to secure the survival of these species and to be able to implement the necessary protective measurements. Such areas for instance are the open land and nature sections of Lima, Terrace Landscape Middle Bonaire (nature) and Bolivia (open). For future research it is recommended to determine those areas with high corridor values for the implementation of ecological corridors and buffer zones on Bonaire.