Habitat Surveys of Saba Bank, Netherlands Antilles: An Assessment of Benthic Communities and Fish Assemblages
Saba Bank is a large and completely submerged carbonate platform in the northeastern Caribbean Sea located approximately 4 km southwest of Saba Island, Netherlands Antilles. Zonation patterns of reef-like bathymetric features, together with observations of significant shelf edge coral reef development, suggest that Saba Bank is an actively growing coral reef atoll. Little quantitative data exists to evaluate the composition and distribution of marine benthic communities or fish assemblages of Saba Bank. In the present study, habitat surveys were conducted to investigate the abiotic characteristics, benthic community composition, and fish assemblage structure of habitats from an eastern portion of Saba Bank known as Overall Bank. A random stratified sampling design was developed that utilized remote sensing data for bathymetry and ocean color superimposed on reef zones. Five sampling strata, which putatively delineated five distinct marine habitat types, were identified along a shelf edge-to-lagoon gradient. Survey results indicate that the proposed strata correspond to distinct marine habitat types in terms of substrate composition, benthic cover, and dominant macro algae. Significant coral cover was restricted to the outer reef edge in the fore reef habitat (11.5 %) and outer reef flat (2.4 %), declining to near absence in the lagoon habitats towards the bank center. Macro algae dominated benthic cover in all habitats (32.5 – 48.1 % cover) with the composition of dominant algal genera differing among habitats. Gorgonians reached their highest density and greatest average colony height in the fore reef zone. Gorgonian colony height was also pronounced in softbottom habitats of the lagoon. Fish assemblage structure showed patterns that were concurrent with observed habitat zonation. Highest fish densities were observed in the outer reef flat, fore reef, and inner reef flat zones. Fish abundance and diversity was low in the lagoon zone and lowest over softbottom habitats within the lagoon. The greatest diversity of fishes (average number of species per survey, cumulative number of species) occurred in the fore reef zone and outer reef flat zone. Fish biomass followed the same pattern of distribution, with the greatest weight occurring in the outermost zones and least in the lagoon. Queen conch were most frequently encountered in the softbottom lagoon zone and estimates of average conch density were between 42 and 60 individuals per hectare. Abundance of spiny lobster was not adequately surveyed by the methods employed in this study and recommendations are made for improved field assessment of lobster stocks. Collectively, the results of this study indicate that the benthic communities of Saba Bank follow predictable patterns of distribution, diversity, and abundance across a gradient from shelf edge to lagoon. Recommendations for future research are given.