Disentangling the Influence of Urbanization and Invasion on Endemic Geckos in Tropical Biodiversity Hot Spots: A Case Study of Phyllodactylus martini (Squamata: Phyllodactylidae) along an Urban Gradient in Curaçao

Predicting the response of endemic species to urbanization has emerged as a fundamental chal- lenge in 21st century conservation biology. The factors that underlie population declines of rep- tiles are particularly nebulous, as these are often the least understood class of vertebrates in a given community. In this study, we assess correlations between feeding ecology and phenotypic traits of the Lesser Antillean endemic Dutch leaf-toed gecko, Phyllodactylus martini, along an urban gra- dient in the Caribbean island of Curaçao. There has been a marked decline of this species in de- veloped habitats associated with the invasive tropical house gecko Hemidactylus mabouia. We find a correlation between aspects of locomotor morphology and prey in undeveloped habitats that is absent in developed habitats. Analyses of stomach contents further suggest that Phyllodactylus martini alters primary prey items in developed areas. However, changes in prey promote the over- lap in foraging niches between Phyllodactylus martini and Hemidactylus mabouia, suggesting that direct resource competition is contributing to the decline of Phyllodactylus martini. In addition to competitive exclusion, we suggest that the urban extirpation of Phyllodactylus martini could also be attributed to a top-down control on population growth by Hemidactylus mabouia. Coloniza- tions of walls put Phyllodactylus martini in direct contact with Hemidactylus mabouia increasing the chances for predation events, as evidenced by our observation of a predation event on a Phyl- lodactylus martini juvenile by an adult Hemidactylus mabuoia. In total, our results add to a grow- ing body of literature demonstrating the threat that invasive synanthropic reptiles pose to endemics that might otherwise be able to cope with increased urbanization pressures. 

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